Teak Cultivation In India| Health Benefits| Pet and Disease Control| Profits| BestPractiz-agri
Teak is tropical hardwood species and belong to family of Lamiaceae. It is most valuable and high price timber crop of India. It is deciduous tall tree up to 40 m tall with grey to greyish brown branches. It is most important hardwood and use for making of furniture, plywood, all types of construction pole, ship building etc. The best quality teak developing regions in India are in the focal pieces of the nation. Teak likewise develops in dry zones of Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
What are the Optimum conditions for Teak Plant?
Mostly occurs in monsoon climate, under tropical and sub tropical conditions. It is a light demanding species relatively high light intensity , i.e. between 75 and 100% of sunlight for better growth and development. It occurs from sea level to an altitude of about 1200 m with 800-2500 mm rainfall regime and also grows in very moist areas with the annual rainfall of over 3,500mm.Teak experiences maximum temperatures up to 48°C and minimum about 2°C in the dry zone of Central India while in the moist parts of the Southern India (west coast), the maximum and minimum temperatures of teak distribution ranges from 43°C and 13°C respectively.
Teak grows well in alluvial soils, fairly moist, warm, tropical climate with pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.5. Teak showed poor growth and form on dry sandy soil, shallow or hard pan soil, acidic, laterite, black cotton and water logged soils.
It has been broadly utilized for decking , deck houses , rails , defenses , hatches , climate entryways and planking .
The traders and timber users recognized several varieties of teak suitable for different end uses. The huge teak trees from Western Ghats region (high rainfall range) are used for structural needs like ship, boat, building construction and bridge building.
Teak from Central Indian area is known for shading, surface and grains favored for furniture and stylish needs.
Teak wood of Godavari valley in Andhra Pradesh is utilized for furniture and bureau making for its elaborate figuring. Teak wood markets and stops are accessible in all teak developing states in India.
Fruits of teak plant cover with thick and hard mesocarp therefore before sowing in nursery various pre-treatments are done on seeds of Teak to increased germination percentage.
Traditional simple method of pre-treatment is alternate soaking and drying of fruits. In this technique seeds are absorbed water for 12 hours at that point dry in sun for 12 hour. This procedure of wetting and drying is repeated for 10-14 days. Corrosive strategy and pit techniques are different strategies for pre-treatment. This has to be repeated for one week. Further grading of fruits according to size help in improving germination. Germination increases with increase in size of fruits .The germination percentage varies from 30 to 50 % in moist teak and 5 to 10 % in dry teak.
The seeds were planted in the raised nursery beds (10 x 1 x 0.3 m) arranged with soil and sand blend. The nursery beds must be watered normally and secured with coconut leaf or paddy straw. Germination begins 10 to 15 days in the wake of planting and proceeds up to 35 to 45 days
The paddy straw might be expelled once the seed began developing . The seedlings can be transplanted to polythene packs or it very well may be kept up in the nursery beds for 10 to a year for readiness of stumps. 50-60% germination rate and 2.5 to 3 kg seeds are required to set one up mother bed and inferred 1000-1500 seedlings. Stumps are set up out of seedlings that of 2.5 cm long, neckline (2-3 cm) and 22-23 cm of tap root.
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It is done in pre rainstorm period which has high achievement. Square or line planting is done in 45-60 cm3 size pits for seedlings and for stump planting, 15cm distance across openings and 30 cm profundity are readied. Roughly 1500-1800 clones required for planting in one section of land territory.
Land Preparation :
Plough land for two three times and bring soil to fine tilth. Also level soil to avoid water stagnation in field. For seedling transplantation dig pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm. Mixed well decomposed cow dung along with insecticides in each pit.
Sowing: Time of sowing
Seeds are sown in nursery beds. Seedlings of 12-15 months are used for stumps preparation for planting. Clonal propagation done through grafting, rooted stem cutting and micro propagation. For planting use pre-sprouted stumps. Monsoon is best season for teak plantation.
For planting use spacing of 2 m x 2 m or 2.5 m x 2.5 m or 3 m x 3 m. When intercrop is taken spacing of 4 m x 4 m or 5 m x 5 m can be used.
For planting Teak pre sprouted stumps, dig pit of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm and fill pit with soil and well decomposed cow dung.
Method of Sowing
Sowing can be done by Line Sowing, Broadcasting or Transplanting method. Teak can likewise be planted in bunds south and north way in such way the rural harvests get adequate light. It was found that there w as no significant variation in wood properties of young (25 to 30 years old) and mature teak (50 to 60 years old).
Teak estate raised with great quality planting material or clones in great soil with restricted water system and dry period with silvicultural practices can be harvested 20 to 25 years.
In August and September month of every year apply N:P:K (15:15:15)@50gm per plant for first three years.
During initial three years foundation, serious weeding is important to keep weed free. Do weeding procedure on normal premise. In first year, take three weeding activity and in second year, complete two weeding tasks. Take one weeding activity in third year of ranch.
In monsoon month no irrigations are required. Apply irrigation in hot or summer month or during stress periods. Irrigation during stress period improve yield to great extent. Excess irrigation would leads to development of water blisters and spread fungi.
Harvesting & Yield :
Timber value is superior, so called "King of Trees". When tree approaches at harvesting state, mark that trees and submit report to "Chief Regional Forestry Office". After getting permission harvesting can be done. Teak farming is highly profitable farming as it has great demand in India as well as abroad. In 14 years each teak tree yield about 10-15 cubic feet wood.
Popular verities-Konni Teak, West African teak, Godavari Teak, South and Central American Teak, Nilambur or Malabar Teak and Adilabad teak.
Nilambur (Malabar) teak • Grows fast, yields larger log dimensions • Straight grain with golden yellowish brown colour, often with darker steaks • Reputed in the trade for ship building and furniture/cabinets West African teak • Wood with black streaks and wavy or twisted grain • Wood figure is mostly inferior to that of Asian teak
South and Central American teak
• Wood lighter in colour
• Fetches lower price due to small dimensional log and less heartwood
• Grows in Rajulmaddugu locality of Andhra Pradesh
• Rose coloured heartwood, attractive surface, fetches high price, Central province teak (CPT)
• Slow grown wood with close grain from drier areas of central India
• Deeper colour, twisted or wavy grain give better appearance and fetches higher price
Home garden/farm grown teak
Home garden teak has more defects like bends and knots lowering timber value.
Wood from dry sites has darker golden
Brown colour with black streaks, making it more attractive in appearance.
Wood from wet sites has paler colour affecting adversely the price of the timber.
Higher natural durability of teak wood from drier locality h is reflected in higher extractive contents with darker colour
• Slow grown wood with close grain and darker colour
• Stronger than Nilambur teak Myanmar (Burma) teak
• Slow grown wood from mostly from natural growth
• Close grain with darker colour
• Fetches high price in international trade
Pest and control :
Teak defoliator, skeletonize are serious pest of teak and they damaged tree to greater extent. To get rid of this pest spray with Quinalphos@300ml/ 150 ltr of water.
Disease and their control: Pink disease, powdery mildew and root rot are major disease of teak plant. It can be controlled by spraying of M-45@400gm per acre.
Special features: Presence of "Tectol" phenol in sap gives high resistance to sap wood rot and termites.