Banana Cultivation In India | Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Profits| BestPractiz-Agri
Updated: Jan 12
Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerela, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Tripura and Manipurare the chief banana growing states in India.Maharashtra ranks first in production with 60 T/ha. Banana contributes 37% to total fruit production in India. Banana occupy 20% area among the total area under crop in India.Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tones of production. In India it supports livelihood of million of people.
Health Benefits of Banana:-
Are bananas good for weight loss? Yes, because bananas are rich in fiber so eating a banana, a day helps in weight loss.
Banana fruits are excellent source of energy
Use of Banana is good for the health of Heart.
Consuming banana also help in weight management as are also excellent source of fiber
If you are suffering from Depression, then consuming banana helps in swinging your mood. Try it!
Use of Banana is also good for the eye health & bones
Long time consumption of banana fruit helps in stopping the kidney cancer.
They are also good for the patients, who regularly suffer from the Ulcer problem.
Banana fruit is also an excellent source of minerals & vitamins.
Bananas are rich in vitamin B6 & of potassium
Apart from this much of healthy benefits, banana tree raw materials are also in high demand & have plenty of application in our day to day life like banana leaves are used in preparing plates, seat pads for benches, umbrellas, clothing fabric, fishing lines, & as cooking material in the kitchen.
What are the Optimum conditions required for Banana Plant?
Banana is basically a tropical crop, grows well in temperature range of 13ºC – 38ºC with Relative humidity regime of 75-85%. In India this crop is being cultivated in climate ranging from humid tropical to dry mild subtropics. The normal growth of the banana begins at 18ºC, reaches optimum at 27ºC, then declines and comes to a halt at 38ºC. Higher temperature(above 38ºC) causes sun scorching and fewer temperature (below 12ºC) causes chilling injuries.High velocity wind which exceeds 80 km/hrs damages the crop.
Soil for banana should have good drainage, adequate fertility and moisture. Deep, rich loamy soil with pH between 6-7.5 are most preferred for banana cultivation. Saline solid, calcareous soil are not suitable for Banana cultivation.A soil that is not too acidic & not too alkaline, rich in organic material with high nitrogen content, adequate phosphorus level and plenty of potash are good for banana.
Commercial edible bananas do not produce viable seeds. So, the banana is commonly propagated by suckers and sword suckers with narrow leaves. Rhizomes whole or in bits from fruited and non-fruited plants with atleast one sound bud can be successfully used as propagating material.
Banana is a heavy feeder and responds well to manuring. Banana is a quick growing and short-lived plant. Therefore, it is more beneficial, if quick growing fertilizers are applied.
How Banana Is Cultivated?
Planting of banana is done by two methods viz. Pit method and furrow method.
Preparation of land:
Plough the land thoroughly atleast for 3-4 times and add about 10 tonnes of well rotten FYM or Compost during last plough and mix it well or add 10-15 kg FYM or Compost per pit of 60x60x60 cm dimension.
Farm yard Manure (FYM) is prepared basically using cow dung, cow urine, waste straw and other dairy wastes. It is rich in nutrients required for the growth of the plant.
Selection of Suckers:
Select ‘Sword Suckers’ with broad corm with narrow sword like leaves, from mother plants which is free from viral, fungal and bacterial diseases.
The selected suckers should be ‘pared’ by trimming of all the roots along with surface layers superficially to remove any rotten portion of the corm.
Dip the pared suckers in 0.2% Carbendazim (2g/litre of water) solution for about 15 –20 minutes as a prophylactic measure against Fusarium wilt disease.
Keep the treated suckers in shade overnight before planting. Plant the suckers in the center of the pit and press the soil around the suckers firmly.
Apply 40 g of Carbofuron granules per pit to protect the plants against nematode attack and irrigate the field thoroughly.
For planting of ‘Tissue Culture’plants, the secondary hardened plant should be about 30 cm tall, 5 cm girth with atleast five fully opened healthy leaves and true to type.
In case of tissue culture plants, one week before planting apply 10 g Carbofuron and 1.0 % bleaching powder or 0.2 % Emissan in 100 ml water as drench into the polythene bags to protect against nematode infestation and bacterial rot (Erwinia Rot) disease respectively.
The propagation of a plant by using a plant part or single cell or group cell in a test tube under very controlled and hygienic conditions is called "Tissue Culture". In India, tissue culture banana is grown in large scale.
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Calendar of Operations:
During First month:
The soil around the plants should be pressed firmly for better and quick establishment of the plants.Wherever necessary, ‘Gap Filling’ should be done to replace the un- sprouted as well as rotten suckers.
In this stage plant is more prone to Fusarium wilt and so to control that,drench the soil around the plant with 0.2% Carbendazim as a preventing measure, or Apply 30g Trichoderma viride or Pseudomonas flourescense along with FYM/compost 1 kg in the soil around the plant as a prophylactic measure for the control of wilt disease.
Application of 40g of Carbofuron to control nematodes.Digging and weeding.
Application of first dose of fertilizers @ 100:300:100 g Urea, Super Phosphate and MOP per plant in basins made about 30 cm away from the plant.
Application of Azospirillum and phosphobacteria @ 30 g and Trichoderma viride @ 30g along with 5-10 kg FYM. There should a gap of minimum 2-3 weeks between the application of chemical fertilizers and biofertilizers. Periodical remove side suckers by cutting them above the ground level and pouring 2 ml kerosene at the central core of the sucker.
If any virus affected plants are noticed in the field, remove and destroy it immediately and spray with any systemic insecticide to kill the insect vectors which spread the virus.
Application of second dose of fertilizers @ 150:150 g Urea and MOP+ 300g neemcake per plant in the basins made about 45 cm away from the plant. Removal of dried leaves. Digging and weeding. To supply the micronutrient need of the plant and to correct their deficiency, apply 50g agricultural lime and 25g magnesium sulphate per plant.
To prevent the egg laying and further attack of, spray‘Neemosol’@12.5ml/litre or Chlorpyriphos @ 2.5ml/litre on the stem.
To monitor the corm and stem weevil, 2 ft long longitudinal stem trap @40 traps/acre can be placed at different places. The collected weevils should be killed.
Keep the Banana fields as well as surrounding areas weed free and spray systemic insecticides to control the insect vectors.
The plant will attain critical growth stage in this period and so protecting it from the damage causing factors is considered to be essential. Digging and earthing up of soil around the plant. Removal of the dried and diseased leaves and spraying of 0.1% Propiconazol (TILT) by thoroughly covering both the surfaces adding wetting agent with the spray fluid especially during winter and cool months for control of Sigatoka leaf spot diseases.
Yellowing of leaves can be seen in these stage which is a symptom of iron deficiency, spray 0.5% ferrous sulphate + 1.0% urea added with wetting agent on the leaves especially in high pH >8.5 and Calcareous soils.
To correct the deficiency of zinc, spray 0.5% zinc sulphate solution along with wetting agent.
Foliar application of 0.5 Borax is recommended to correct the deficiency.
Apply 30g Trichoderma viride or Pseudomonas flourescense in the soil around the plant as a prophylactic measure to control the wilt disease.
For controlling the stem weevil attack, using ‘Banana Injector’, inject 2ml of Monocrotophos (150 ml Monocrotophos mixed in 350 ml of water) at 2 and 4 feet height on opposite direction.
Administer third dose of fertilizers @ 150:150 g Urea and MOP per plant about 60 cm away from the plant by using the basins. Removal of the dried and diseased leaves and spraying of 0.1% Carbendazim or Calixin by thoroughly covering both the surfaces along with wetting agent. Periodical removal of side suckers by cutting them above the ground level, scoop the core and pour 2 ml kerosene in the core.
Injection of 2ml of Monocrotophos using ‘Banana Injector’ at 2 and 4 feet height for the control of stem weevil.
After flowering, only one healthy side sucker should be allowed for first ratoon and the remaining suckers should be killed using kerosene or uprooted. Spraying of 0.1% Indofil by thoroughly covering both the surfaces. After the emergence of the last hand, the male bud has to be removed leaving about 15 cm stalk from the last hand.
To prevent ‘cigar end rot’ disease, remove the pistil and perianth carefully from the fully emerged fingers and spray the bunch with Indofil M-45 @ 2.5 ml/litre.
Spray 2% Potassium Sulphate (20g/litre of water) solution with surfactant by thoroughly drenching the bunch and cover the bunch with 100 gauge thick white or blue polythene sleeves having 6% ventilation.
Thirty days after the first spray, give a second spray of 2% Potassium Sulphate (20g/litre of water) solution with surfactant by thoroughly drenching the bunch.
Provide casuarina pole or bamboo support to the plants for tall and heavy bearing bunches.
Harvesting and Yield:
Harvesting of banana is done 12 to 15 months after planting in dwarf and 15 to 18 months after planting in tall varieties. Signs of maturity of banana fruits are, fruit becomes plumpy and angles are filled in completely, when tapped gives metallic sound, drying off of top leaves and change in colour of fruits from deep green to light green.
Each stem grows 9 to 12 hands, which means that a single banana plant can produce up to 240 bananas.Based on the varieties the price and yield may varies.