Eucalyptus Cultivation In India| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Profits| BestPractiz-agri
Eucalyptus belongs to family of Myrtaceae with 300 species of genus. It is a native of Australia and Tasmania. It is fast growing tree in world and attained great height (one of its species attained height of 480 feet). It is also known as gum tree, Nilgiri tree or safeda.
Significant eucalyptus developing states are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal and Karnataka.
Eucalyptus is a fast growing tree and sub-species with several varieties and hybrids. It can be planted on agricultural lands both as monoculture and as a component of agro-forestry programmes.
USES AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF EUCALYPTUS:
It is planted for fuel wood, poles, timber, and biomass and for essential oil purpose. Essential oil of Eucalyptus has special space in Ayurveda Treatment. Also it is good source of nectar for honey bees. Following are the some important uses and benefits of Eucalyptus.
Leaves – In both fresh and dried form, leaves of eucalyptus are used as air fresheners and in medicinal teas.
Oil – In this form, eucalyptus is added to cough and cold medicines, dental products, antiseptics and used directly to treat fevers. Oils are also used in industrial mining operations and as aromatherapy.
Ointment – Applied directly to the skin, the plant is used for treating minor aches and pains. It is also an ingredient in several over-the-counter rubs to be used as cold treatments.
Sprays – Some companies sell the plant in a spray form, allowing it to be used topically on humans and pets.
Eucalyptus is used for all types of construction, fine as well as utilitarian, light and heavy. It is often made into flooring or objects such as bowls, and traditional Aboriginal didgeridoos are created from eucalyptus logs that have been hollowed out by termites.
Paper and pulp: One of the most important uses of eucalypt wood so far has been in the paper and pulp industry.
What are the Optimum conditions for Eucalyptus Plant?
Eucalyptus can be grown in wide variety of climatic conditions. It requires 330mm to 1500mm rainfall for its growth. Eucalyptus tree has high degree of drought resistance; hence it can be cultivated in drought areas and waste lands. In Indian subcontinent, Eucalyptus tree can be grown in the regions with temperature range of 0-40°C (Sowing Temp 25-35°C ).
For good growth it required soil having good drainage capacity. It can grow in variety of soil but it gives best result when grown on well drained, rich in organic content loamy soils. Water logged, heavy alkaline and saline soils are not suitable for eucalyptus cultivation.
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It can be propagated by seed as well as through vegetative propagation. For nursery prepare raised beds in shades and sow seeds on it. At temperature range of 25-35°C rapid growth of seedling is achieved. Seedlings are ready for transplantation in polythene bag 6 weeks after sowing i.e at second leaf pair stage. 3-5 month after sowing they are ready for transplantation in field. Transplantation in field is mostly done in rainy season.
Seeds are viable up to three moths
Nursery bed size: 1.2 x 1.2 x .03m (Length x width x height)
Seeds are mixed with sand and broadcasted over the mother bed
Finally cover the mother bed with thin layer of soil
Keep a layer of paddy straw for mulching
Eucalyptus is mainly planted for industrial purpose. For commercial plantation make land weed and stubble free. Plough land for two three times and bring soil to fine tilth. For plantation dig pit of size 30cm x 30cm x 30cm or 45cm x 45cm x 45cm.
Light requirement: Light demander species
Spacing: 2 x 2 m
No of Plants: 625 plants per acre
After two years trees can attain 3.2 m
Silvicultural operations: Pruning, weeding and thinning
Weed Control: At initial stage two or three hand weeding are required to keep field weed free.
Seedlings are transplanted in main field 3-5 months after sowing. Seedlings are planted in pits with onset of monsoon. At time of planting apply neem based nutrients along with Phosphate@50gm and vermicompost@250gm/pit. Neem based nutrient protect seedling from termite damage. In first year apply 50gm of NPK fertilizer per plant. In second year, apply NPK (17:17:17)@50gm per plant. Also take hand weeding operation and keep check on weed growth.
Irrigation is needed immediately after transplantation in main field. In monsoon irrigation is not required but provide protective irrigation if monsoon fails. Eucalyptus is drought tolerant crop, but for optimum yield it required overall 25 irrigations in entire growth period mostly. Irrigation is needed mostly in summer season and to some extent in winter season.
Harvesting and Yield:
In Tamil Nadu, around 25-30 t/ha at a revolution of 6-7 years was acknowledged through seed raised estates during mid 1990's. Presentation of clones expanded the yield up to 60-70 t/ha in six years revolution. Through site-clone coordinating, a yield of 100-150 t/ha was accomplished in five years revolution relying upon the ripeness level of the dirt.
From clonal Plantation yield of 50MT to 76MT in multi year pivot is acquired while from starting point estate 30MT to 50MT is gotten. Yield may shift as it relies on ranch the executives rehearses, plant thickness, atmosphere and so on.
Pest and their control:
1. Termite: In young plant termite is most dangerous insect and it damage crop to great extent. Control: apply Nimbicides@2ml/Ltr of water.
2. Gall: It causes drying of leaves, growth retardation, poor stem formation. New leaves appeared in gall infected plants are stunted.
Control:If infection observed, remove and destroyed gall affected plants. Use gall resistant varieties.
3. Stem Canker: If infestation is observed, to control, apply Bordeaux mixture in root portion.