• HariKishore Reddy

Mango Cultivation| Health Benefits| Pest And Disease Control| Profits| BestPractiz-Agri

Updated: Jan 12

Mangifera indica is almost grown in all states of India. It is mainly cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal. It is a large, branched perennial erect tree with wide evergreen crown which attains a great height. Flowers appear in large terminal inflorescences producing fruit which is a fleshy drupe.



Health & Nutritional Benefits of Mango:


Mango additionally called the lord of organic products, is one of the most well known natural products over the world. Mangoes are plentiful in supplements like nutrients, minerals and cancer prevention agents. It likewise contains hints of magnesium, manganese, selenium, calcium, iron, and phosphorus which are significant for our body. This tropical natural product is reviving, succulent and tasty and it has some extraordinary wholesome advantages. Mango tastes so great that individuals don't understand they have numerous medical advantages. Here are a couple of medical advantages of mango.


Aids in digestion:

Mango assumes a noticeable job in eliminating the issues, for example, heartburn and overabundance sharpness. They contain chemicals that guide the breakdown and absorption of protein, and furthermore fiber which keeps the stomach related tract working effectively.


Supports eye health:

Mango contains supplements that help eye Health. Two key supplements are the cancer prevention agents lutein and zeaxanthin.


Improves Hair and skin Health:

Mango contains nutrient C, which gives your skin its flexibility and forestalls listing and wrinkling. It also gives nutrient A, which advances hair development and the creation of sebum, which saturate your scalp.


Promotes gut health:

The tissue of mango contains prebiotic dietary fiber, which helps feed great microscopic organisms in the gut. A solid gut is inconvenient to a sound state. Flawed gut, aside from poor processing brings about skin conditions like IBS, asthma, slow digestion and other medical problems.


Boosts Immunity:

Mangoes are wealthy in beta-carotene, an amazing carotenoid. This assists with improving the insusceptible framework and encourages it to counter microorganisms and poisons..


Helps in managing weight:

Mangoes, when eaten with some restraint, could likewise help in weight reduction. The phytochemicals in the mango skin go about as normal fat busters.


Mango is plentiful in nutrients, mineral and cell reinforcements and has been related with numerous medical advantages, including potential enemy of malignant growth impacts just as improved insusceptibility, stomach related, eye, skin and hair wellbeing. Be that as it may, Mango is tasty and can be delighted in from multiple points of view.


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What are the Optimum conditions required for Mango Plant?


Climate:

Mango is very much adjusted to tropical and subtropical atmospheres. It flourishes well in practically all the districts of the nation from ocean level to a height of 600 m. The perfect temperature extend for mango is 240-300C during the developing season, alongside high mugginess. A precipitation scope of 890-1,015 mm in a year is considered as perfect for developing mangoes. In any case, mango can be developed in locales of both overwhelming (2540 mm) or insufficient (254 mm) precipitation. Dry climate before blooming is helpful for abundant blossoming. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination.


Soil:

Mango develops well on wide assortment of soils, for example, lateritic, alluvial, sandy topsoil and sandy. The loamy, alluvial, very much depleted, circulated air through and profound soils (2-2.5 m) wealthy in natural issue with a pH scope of 5.5-7.5 are perfect for mango development. The water table ought to associate with 3 m and soils with high water table are unsatisfactory for mango.


Nursery and Planting Techniques of Mango Plant:


Season of planting:

Planting takes place from July to December.


Propagation techniques:

Mango can be raised from seed or engendered vegetatively.

A few strategies for vegetative proliferation have been attempted with fluctuating degrees of progress. Spread from seed, however simple and modest, can't sustain characters of the parent tree on the grounds that most business assortments in India are cross-pollinated and mono early stage. Plants likewise set aside more effort to hold up under natural product. Be that as it may, it is fundamental to raise seedlings to be utilized as rootstocks.


Stone Grafting:

Stone/epicotyl grafting is a simple, cheap and quick method of mango propagation with a success rate of 75-80%.For this reason, stones ought to be planted in June-July on raised beds of size 1x3 m. the beds should e arranged by blending soil and FYM in the extent of 2:1. Care ought to be taken to evacuate the sprouts on the rootstocks beneath the unite association during this period.


Soft-Wood Grafting:

This method of grafting is done when the rootstock is overgrown and thus not suitable for stone grafting. Normally in this method, seedlings of 8-10 months old are selected. The grafting is done on newly emerged flush. The scion wood to be used is defoliated 10 days prior to the grafting and has same thickness as that of terminal shoot. The method of grafting is similar to stone grafting. July and August are the best months for soft-wood grafting.


Inarching:

The strategy for inarching or approach joining is very awkward and tedious, however it is as yet the main technique for business proliferation of mango plants. The strategy comprises of joining the chose shoot (scion) of an ideal parent tree (mother plant) with the pruned or transplanted seedling (rootstock) by approach grafting.


Veneer Grafting :

This technique for spread has guarantee for mass scale business proliferation. The technique is straightforward and can be received with progress. The rootstocks as referenced for inarching are appropriate for this strategy too.


Land preparation:

Dig pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m. Fill in with topsoil mixed with 10 kg of FYM and 100 g Lindane 1.3% dust per pit.


Spacing:

Mango is normally planted at 7 to 10 m either way. However under high density planting, it varies between 5 x 5 m and 6 x 6 m.


Planting:


Grafts are planted in the focal point of pit with bundle of earth unblemished followed by watering and marking. The join association must be 15 cm over the ground level. Land ought to be set up by profound furrowing followed by frightening and leveling with a delicate slant for good seepage. Dispersing changes from 10 m x 10 m, in the dry zones where development is less, to 12 m x 12 m, in overwhelming precipitation regions and rich soils where bottomless vegetative development happens. New diminutive person half breeds like Amrapali can be planted at nearer dividing.


Weed Control :

Weeding and earthing up ought to be done around recently planted harvest. Intercrop can be taken till plant gets all around familiar to encompassing air upto plant begin bearing. Contingent on assortment it will take 5-6years. Intercropping assists with limiting weed control.


Inter cropping :

Mango plantation gives a chance to using the land space to its most extreme during introductory long periods of foundation. Harvests like green gram, dark gram, vegetable yields, for example, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, brinjal, cucumber, pumpkin, tinda and so forth and flavors like chilies can effectively be developed as intercrops.


Irrigation system:

Water system the executives is vital to the creation of value organic product. Water inputs must be outfitted to tree water necessities, soil factors and organic product physiological prerequisites. Normal watering is suggested till foundation. Under ordinary water system frameworks, week after week water system is basic. Be that as it may, under miniaturized scale water system the necessity is limited to 33% of the water required for customary technique.


Harvesting:


Changing of fruit color is sign of fruit maturity. It usually required 15-16week after fruits set to get mature. Pick individual fruits with help of ladder or bamboo having sharp knife and having net to collect harvested fruits. Avoid falling of fruits on ground as it will damage fruits during storage. After harvesting, do sorting and grading of fruits according to size, color and then packed in boxes. Place harvested fruits on poly net upside down.

Fruiting Cycle:

In fruiting orchards there are three phases during the annual growing cycle where distinct irrigation management options need to be exercised.


• Phase One Pre-flowering, from the end of the wet season to the commencement of flowering (April to June/July).

• Phase Two Flowering and fruiting, from visible panicle bud differentiation to harvest (July to November).

• Phase Three Post harvest to the end of the wet season (November to April).


Post-Harvest:


After harvesting dip fruits in water. Reject immature fruits which float on water. After that place fruits in 25gm/Ltr salt water. Fruits which float in salt water are mainly used for export. According to prevention of Food adulteration act (1954) ripening of any food by using Carbide gas is a crime. For uniform ripening of fruits , dip 100kg fruits in 100Ltr of water containing (62.5ml-187.5ml) Ethrel at 52±2°C for 5min within 4-8 days after harvesting. For fruit fly detection in export quality fruits VHT (vapor heat treatment) is compulsory. For this process use 3days prior harvested fruits.


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Plant Protection:

Pest and their Control:


Mealy Bug:

It causes damage to crop by sucking sap from inflorescences, stem, leaves and shoot. Infestation observed mostly in January to April. Mealy bug affected part dried and sooty mould is seen on infected parts.


Control:To prevent tree from mealy bug infestation, 25cm width Polythene(400gauge) strip fastened around tree trunk to stop ascent of nymphs before hatching of eggs in month of Nov and Dec. If infestation is observed, spray Acephate@2gm/Ltr or Spirotetramat@3ml/Ltr of water to control mealy bug.


Mango Hopper:

Infestation is observed mostly in February-March Month when crop is in flowering stage. They suck sap from inflorescences, leaves. On infection flower get sticky and sooty mould a black color fungus is developed on affected parts.


Control:If infestation is observed take Spray Cypermethrin 25EC @3ml or Deltamethrin 28EC@9ml or Fenvelarate20EC@5ml or Neembicidine 1000ppm@20ml in 10Ltr water on whole tree.

Mango Fruit Fly:

It is serious pest of mango. Females lay eggs below epidermis of young fruits. Later on maggots feed on pulp afterward fruits starts rotting and get drop.


Control:Destroy infected fruits away from field. During fruit developed stage, hang traps of 100ml emulsion of methyl Engenol 0.1%. In May month start spraying of Chlorpyrifos 20EC@2ml/Ltr of water for three times with interval of 20days.


Disease and their control:


Powdery Mildew: Whitish powdery growth observed on inflorescence and the floral parts. In severe condition, they get drop. Also fruits, branches and floral part show dieback symptoms.


Control:Before flowering, during flowering and after fruit set, take spray of 1.25kg wet able sulphur in 200litre of water. If needed, take second spray with interval of 10-15days. If infestation is observed in field, take spray of 178% Imidacloprid@3ml along with Hexaconzole@5ml/10Ltr water or Tridemorph@5ml or Carbendazim @10gm/10Ltr of water.

Stem Borer:

Serious pest of mango crop. It create tunnel under bark and destroyed tree by feeding on internal tissue. Larva of stem borer excreta is observed outside of tunnel.


Control:If infestation is observed, clean tunnel with hard wire and insert cotton swab dip in mixture of Kerosene and Chlorpyriphos in ratio of 50:50 and then closed it with mud.


Anthracnose or Dieback:

Dark brown or black spots are observed on shoots. On fruits also small, raise, dark spots are observed.


Control:To control dieback and other diseases, cut infested, dead portion and apply Bordo Paste on it. Spray Bordeaux mixture@10gm/Ltr of water. If infestation observed in field take spray of Copper oxychloride@30gm/10Ltr on infected trees. If Anthracnose observed on new flush. Spray with Thiophanate methyl@10gm or Carbendazim@10gm/10Ltr of water.


Black Tip: Fruits get abnormally elongated at tips along with pre-mature ripening of fruits.


Control:During flowering take spray of Borax@6gm/ltr of water + Copper Oxychloride@3gm/Ltr of water for three times with 10-15days interval.

Mango Varieties

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