Neem Tree Cultivation in India| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Profits| BestPractiz-Agri
Updated: Jan 12
Neem (Azadirachta indica) belonging to meliaceae family is one of the most suitable and valuable tree species found in India.It can grow on wide scope of soils upto pH 8.5 which makes it one of the most flexible and significant trees in Indian sub-landmass. Because of its diverse uses, it has been cultivated by Indian ranchers since vedic period and it has now become piece of Indian culture. Neem tree can be marked as miracle tree for its multipurpose uses in genuine sense. This has been utilized as a medicinal plant for long time and gives practically all the requirements of rural regions be the timber, fuelwood, grain, oil, manures, pest repellent or the universal 'datun'.
It is grown from the southern tip of Kerala to the Himalayan hills in the tropical to sub tropical and semi arid to wet tropical regions and from the sea level to about 700 m elevation. It has been widely cultivated in India and African countries. In India, it occurs throughout the larger parts of the country in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
USES AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF NEEM:
It is popularly known as the miracle tree as it has multipurpose use.
Neem extracts are used as insecticides, pesticides and fungicides.
Neem oil has antibacterial, antiviral properties and used in skin and dental problems.
Neem products are being used for malaria, fever, pain and also as contraceptive.
Neem is also being used in cosmetics, lubricants and fertilisers.
Neem bark is used in villages for rope making.
Neem oil is used in soap manufacture.
What are the Optimum conditions for NEEM Plant?
It generally performs well on areas with annual rainfall varying from 400 - 1200 mm. It thrives under the hottest conditions where maximum day temperature reaches50 degree Celsius. But it cannot withstand freezing or extended cold.
Neem grows on practically a wide range of soils including clayey, saline and soluble soils yet excels on dark cotton soils. It flourishes better than most different trees on dry stony saline soils with a waterless sub-soil or in places where there is a hard calcareous or or clay pan near the surface. It doesn't endure immersion. It has an exceptional property of calcium mining which changes the acidic soil into impartial. Neem likewise develops well on some acidic soil. It is said that the fallen neem leaves which are somewhat soluble are useful for killing sharpness in the dirt.
Nursery Management and Transplanting of Neem:
Seed collection and storage:
Only fruits at the yellow green colour stage are pricked from the branches.The collected fruits are depulped immediately. Soaking in cold water for a few hours helps in removing pulp.
Fruiting time: June to August
Matured tree can yield upto 5 Kg of seeds (Starts from 5th year)
No of Seeds / Kg : 3500-4000/Kg
Germination: Stats from 2-3 months (90%)
Seed storage: 6 months (Store in shaded place)
Plan raise bed of 10 m length, 1 m broadness and 15 cm stature. Blend very much disintegrated bovine waste, sand and nearby soil in apportion of 1:1:3 and blend on raised bed. Sow the seeds at separation of 15-20 cm and to profundity of 1-1.5 cm. Give light water system in the wake of planting.
Seedlings are emerge after 7 days from the date of sowing in mother bed
Neem seedlings can sown by using small neem branches
Ploy bag size: 16 x 20 cm
Fertilizer application: Vermi compost 35 gm, Azhospirillum and Phospobacteria 6 gm to be mix well that to be applied in nursery
Neem can be effectively raised through direct planting, whole/polypot seedlings or root-shoot cuttings. At the point when seedlings become four to half year old for example plant become 15 to 22.5 cm old, are prepared for transplantation. Burrowed pits of 30x30x30 cm burrowed at separation of 5x5m (65plant/section of land). Transplantation ought to be finished during storm periods. Contingent on precipitation, give water system once in 2-3 days. A while later water can be given, once in 7-10 days.
50 gm of VAM fertilizer, 20 gm of Azhospirillum and Phospobacteria to be applied regularly.
Strip weeding of youthful manors positively affects wellbeing and endurance. Two weedings are adequate in the main year and one weeding during the subsequent year. First mechanical diminishing on account of transplanted seedlings is done at 5 years old years..
Appropriate watering and weeding are exceptionally fundamental during the initial two years for legitimate foundation. Apply water system, after each weeding and hoeing. In the event of water shortage, do spot utilization of water, once in 10 days will assist the harvest with surviving in dry spell conditions. Do mulching around the tree bowls, it will help to preserved water.
Harvesting & Yield of Neem:
Neem begins bearing natural products following 5 years and comes to full bearing at the age of 10-12 years. Organic product yield is 5-20 kg for each tree every year in the initial years. A matured tree produces 35-50 kg natural product/year. Oil yield fluctuates from 40-43% of seed on dry weight basis.Kernels are very much dried by spreading them on hard ground in shade and afterward they are put away. To keep away from organism development, store portions in Jute sack. Putting away seed for over one month will diminish pace of development. Try not to dry portions if prompt planting is to be finished.
Economic Uses of Neem:
Neem is a huge ever green tree 15 to 20 M. high with semi-straight and straight trunk 30 to 80 cm in distance across and spreading branches framing a wide crown. It has a long existence of 100years. Neem tree has a few financial favorable circumstances over other multi-reason tree species developed in India.
• The principle utilization of the tree is for creation of seeds for extricating oil.
• The tree can be gathered for wood following 35 to 40 years of planting.
• The sap wood of Neem is grayish white and heart wood is red to ruddy earthy colored taking after Mahogany.
• Wood is utilized for building houses, as posts, shafts, entryway/window outlines, furniture, trucks, axles, yorks, boat and vessel building, rudders and paddles, oil plants, stogie boxes, cut pictures, toys and farming actualizes.
Pests & Diseases Control in Neem cultivation:
DISEASES OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica) :
Early reports show that a couple of organisms are known to cause infections in nurseries and ranches of neem. They are Fungi like types of Organisms, Alternaria, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Oidium, Ganoderma and Corticium. A short depiction of the different illnesses and their control gauges in nursery is given underneath:
1) Leaf Web Blight:
It is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The disease appears in the nursery after the regular monsoon rains set in.
Control Measures: The disease has been managed through interacted approach which includes measures such as sanitation and cultural practices. Application of fungicide (Bavistin 0.1% a.i.) is found effective.
(2) Colletotrichum Leaf spot and blight:
It is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It has been recorded in a serious form at New Forest, Dehra Dun. It appears in nursery at the end of the September or first week of October.
Control Measures: Application of Blitox fungicide (0.2% a.i.) twice at weekly intervals is found effective in controlling the disease.
(3) Alternaria Leaf spot and blight:
It is caused by Alternaria alternata. It is a destructive pathogen. It appears late in the growing season in the last week of October or early November at New Forest, Dehra Dun.It attacks the leaves when the leaves become old and contain less soluble sugars.
Control Measures: Application of Blitox fungicide (0.2%) at fortnightly intervals is found very effective.
(4) Pseudocercospora Leaf spot:
It is caused by Pseudocercospora subsessilis. The disease occurs throughout the natural distribution of neem.
Control Measures: Application of Mancozeb in combination with Brestan is found effective in controlling the disease.
(5) Powdery Mildew:
This disease is caused by Oidium azadirachtae.
Control Measures: Foliar spray of Bavistin fungicidal solution (0.01%) is found to be effective in minimizing the disease.
(6)Other Foliar Diseases:
Bacterial leaf spot: Bacterial leaf spot is caused by a bacterium, Xanthomonas azadirachtii and Pseudomonas viticola.
Leaf spot and Blight: Leaf spot is caused by Colletotrichum capsici. Leaf Blight and stem rot are caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.
Seedling wilt: Seedling wilt is caused by Fusarium solani. Twig canker and shot hole in leaves are caused Phoma sp.