• HariKishore Reddy

Papaya Cultivation Cost and Profits in India| Pest and Disease control

Updated: Dec 17, 2020

Botanical Name:- Carica papaya


Family :- Caricaceae


It is a tropical natural product which is local to Mexico. It is a quick development plant which has long fruiting period and contains high dietary benefit. India is known as the biggest maker of papaya. It very well may be developed in pots, nursery, polyhouse and holders. It is a quickly developing, brief herbaceous plant, unbranched which fruits inside a year's time. The plant is 2 - 10 m in tallness with a straight, barrel shaped delicate and empty trunk roughened by the nearness of leaf and inflorescence scars. Leaves are exchange, swarmed at the peak shaping a crown. The natural products are borne on the developing axils of the plant.


In India papaya is mainly cultivated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Orissa, Manipur and Meghalaya.


Health & Nutritional Benefits of Papaya:


The fruit which is extremely rich in Vitamin C has a wide range of health benefits making it a great fruit option to include in your diet. Here are some of the top health benefits of papaya.


The fruit which is extremely rich in Vitamin C has a wide range of health benefits making it a great fruit option to include in your diet. Here are some of the top health benefits of papaya.


1. Lowers cholesterol:


Papaya is plentiful in fiber, Vitamin C and cell reinforcements which forestall cholesterol develop in your supply routes. A lot of cholesterol develop can prompt a few heart maladies including cardiovascular failure and hypertension.


2. Helps in weight loss:


Those hoping to get more fit must remember papaya for their eating regimen as it is low in calories. The fiber content in papaya leaves you feeling full and furthermore clears your defecation making your weight reduction system simpler.

3. Boost your immunity:


Your insusceptibility framework goes about as a shield against different contaminations that can make you truly debilitated. A solitary papaya contains over 200% of your day by day prerequisite of Vitamin C, making it incredible for your invulnerability.


4. Good for diabetics:


Papaya is an excellent food option for diabetics as it has a low-sugar content even though it is sweet to taste. Also, people who don’t have diabetes can eat papaya to prevent it from happening.


5. Great for your eyes:

Papaya is rich in Vitamin A which helps protect your vision from degenerating. Nobody wants to lose their ability to see due to diseases like age-related macular degeneration, and eating papayas will ensure that you do not see a day where you cannot see.

6. Protects against arthritis:


Joint inflammation can be a truly incapacitating sickness and individuals who have it might locate their personal satisfaction diminished fundamentally. Eating papayas are useful for your bones as they have mitigating properties alongside Vitamin C which helps in keeping different types of joint inflammation under control. An examination distributed in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases indicated that individuals who devoured nourishments low in Vitamin C were multiple times bound to have joint pain than the individuals who didn't.


7. Improves digestion:


In the present occasions, it is close to difficult to abstain from eating nourishments that are awful for your stomach related framework. Regularly we end up eating lousy nourishment or café food arranged in exorbitant amounts of oil. Gobbling a papaya day by day can compensate for such intermittent mix-ups, as it has a stomach related protein known as papain alongside fiber which improves your stomach related wellbeing.


8. Helps ease menstrual pain:


Women who are experiencing menstrual pain should help themselves to several servings of papaya, as an enzyme called papain helps in regulating and easing flow during menstrual periods.


9. Prevents signs of ageing:


We all couldn't imagine anything better than to remain youthful always, yet nobody in this world has figured out how to do it. In any case, solid propensities like eating a papaya day by day will drag out the procedure and may make you look 5 years more youthful than you are. Papaya is plentiful in Vitamin C, Vitamin E and cell reinforcements like beta-carotene which keeps your skin from free extreme harm keeping wrinkles and different indications of maturing under control.


10. Prevents cancer:


Papaya is a rich source of antioxidants, phytonutrients and flavonoids that prevent your cells from undergoing free radical damage. Some studies have also linked the consumption papaya to reduced risk of colon and prostate cancer.


11. Helps reduce stress:


After working hard for the whole day, it is a good idea to come home to a plate a papayas. The wonder fruit is rich in several nutrients like Vitamin C which can keep you free from stress. According to a study conducted in University of Alabama, found that 200 mg of Vitamin C can help regulate the flow of stress hormones in rats.


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What are the Optimum conditions required for Papaya?



Soil:

Papaya grows well in well-drained rich sandy loam soils with a depth of 45cm or medium black soils free from water logging. Light soils with pH between 6.5-7 are very good for papaya, if they are adequately manured.

Climate:


Papaya is a tropical crop, but it does well in a mild tropical climate. It grows well from sea level upto an altitude of 1000m. Papaya should not be grown in areas with strong, hot or dry winds. Dry climate at the time of ripening adds to the sweetness of fruits. Ideal temperature for growing papaya is between 25-30oC while temperatures below 10OC delays ripening. In high rainfall areas are not suitable for growing papaya due to the death of the plants by collar- rot disease.


Nursery Stage of Papaya:

Propagation:


Propagation of papaya is mostly through seeds. However freshly extracted seeds show low germination due to presence of sarco testa. Storage of seeds at 100C was found to be the best for retention of seed viability. Viability of papaya seed can be maintained for 9 months at room temperature when stored in air-tight containers.


Raising Seedlings in Nursery:


Seedlings are grown in nursery on raised beds of size 1 x 2 m. Seeds are sown at a depth of 1 cm in rows spaced at 15 cm with 2.5 cm spacing within the row. Seedlings can also be raised in polythene bags of size 5x7cm. Before sowing seeds are treated with Thiourea (100-200 ppm) and Gibberellic acid (GA3 at 200 ppm) for better germination. The beds/bags are immediately watered after sowing. Seeds germinate in 2-3 weeks after sowing. Seedlings are ready for transplanting within 45-60 days when they reach a height of 20-25cm.



Planting Stage:

Season of Planting:


The ideal season of transplanting is the beginning of monsoon. However, transplanting may be continued from June to November.


Spacing:


The soil should be thoroughly ploughed and levelled before planting. In general the optimum recommended spacing is 1.8x1.8m accommodating 3086 plants/ha. Square or rectangular system of planting is usually adopted in papaya.

Pit Digging:

Pits of 45 cm3 are to be made at required distance. They are filled with top soil and FYM (3:1) and single Superphosphate (100 g) before transplanting.


Method of Planting:


Seedlings should be transplanted, preferably in the evening. It is suggested to transplant at least 2-3 seedlings/pit in case of varieties, which produces only male or female flowers on individual plant (CO.2, CO.6, Pusa Dwarf and Washington). In the gynodioecious type (CO.3, Pusa Majestic and Pusa Delicious) single plant can be planted per pit.


Thinning:


The papaya plants begin blooming following 6-7 months of transplanting. At blossoming, abundance plants are to be evacuated keeping just one plant in each pit and keeping up a female: male plant proportion of 10: 1. Care ought to be taken to keep the male plants very much spread in the field for powerful fertilization.


Weed control:


Being a shallow rooted plant, weeds compete with papaya plants for nutrition.

Therefore regular weeding is essential for vigorous plant growth. Weeding is usually done by hoeing or tilling. Use of herbicides like Diuron @2.0-2.5 kg a.i/ha or Glyphosate @1-2 kg a.i./ha were effective in controlling the weeds in papaya orchards. Care should be taken while spraying so as to avoid spilling of the herbicides on papaya leaves.


Inter-cropping:


Vegetables may be grown as an intercrop before the plants start fruiting. It is not advisable to grow any intercrop once the plants started bearing. Crops like mung, udid, onion, horse gram and leafy vegetables are suitable for growing as intercrops.


Irrigation:


Customary water system is a significant perspective in papaya development, which helps in development, fruit advancement and high return. Dampness stress restrains the development and furthermore advances male flower characters. By and large, water system to grown-up plants is given once in 7-10 days in winter and 4-5 days in summer. The ring arrangement of water system has been discovered extremely viable. This framework helps in forestalling neckline decay as there is no immediate contact between the water and the stem partition.


Drip irrigation helps to save 50-60% water. Irrigation through the drip @6-8lit. /day/plant gives better yields.


Harvesting Stage:


Papaya fruits will be prepared for collect by around 9-10 months subsequent to planting contingent upon cultivar and winning temperature over the span of natural product advancement. The difference in shading from green to yellow and the consistency of the latex from smooth to watery demonstrate that the fruit is prepared for gather. The ready fruit is collected separately by hand picking taking consideration to evade every single imaginable injury. The develop fruit effectively gets confined from stem either by turning it upwards or by curving. The fruit ought to be gathered promptly in the first part of the day and kept in conceal for reviewing.


Yield:


A tree with good management produces 25 to 40 fruits weighing 40to 60 kg in the first 15 to 18 months. The yield of papain is as follows –


Year Approximate yield (kg/ha)


1st 250


2nd 150-200


3rd 75-100


Approximately 25g of latex is obtained per fruit. 5 kg of latex on drying yield 1kg of papain.


Post Harvest Technology:


Grading:


The fruits should be graded as per the size and colour while discarding the damaged and diseased fruits.


Packaging:


For nearby market the natural products ought to be put away in a solitary layer of straw until they become delicate. Anyway for inaccessible vehicle, the individual natural products are enclosed by paper/tissue paper to abstain from wounding wounds during transport. The natural products are then stuffed in single-layer fiberboard holders with pressing materials between the fruits.


Storage:


For nearby markets ideal temperature of 20°C was discovered both for maturing and acceptable stockpiling for about fourteen days. Capacity beneath 10°C has been known to cause chilling wounds more prominent in develop green than ready papayas. Chilling injury indications incorporate pitting, smeared shading, lopsided maturing, skin burn, and expanded powerlessness to rot. The greater part ready papayas (at in case half yellow) can be put away at 4-10°C without creating indications of chilling wounds. Introduction of papayas to temperatures above 30°C for over 10 days bring about warmth injury. The indications incorporate lopsided maturing, messy aging, helpless shading, unusual relaxing, surface pitting and quickened rot.


For fares of papaya, high temp water treatment is given by plunging the natural products for 30 minutes at 42°C quickly followed by a 49°C plunge for 20 minutes. Snappy cooling to 13°C after warmth medicines limits heat injury.


Controlled-air (CA) stockpiling (2% O2 and 5-10% CO2) at 10°C has been discovered useful for deferred aging, solidness maintenance and abstain from chilling wounds.


Transport:


For local markets the fruits are transported in trucks while for distant markets it should be preferably sent through railways. Transportation through railways is faster and economical.


Pest and Disease Control:


Disease and Their Control:


1. Stem rot:

Water like wet spots are seen on plant stem. The symptoms get spread on all sides of the plant. Plant leaves fall apart before it is fully developed.


Treatment:

To control this disease spray with M-45@300gm in 150ltr water.




2. Powdery mildew:

Patchy, white powdery growth appears on upper surface of leaves also on main stem of infected plant. It parasitizes the plant using it as a food source. In severe infestation it causes defoliation and premature fruit ripening.


Treatment:

Spraying of Thiophanate methyl 70% WP@300gm in 150-160ltr water/acre is done.


3. Root rot or wilt:

The disease causes rotting of roots which ultimately result in plant wilting.


Treatment:

To control this disease drenching with Saaf@400gm in 150ltr water.

4. Papaya mosaic:

The symptoms appear on top young leaves of the plants.


Treatment:

To control this pest spraying with Malathion@300ml in 150ltr water is done.



Pest and Their Control:


1. Aphid:

They suck the sap of the plant. Aphids help in spreading disease in plants.


Treatment:

To control this pest spraying with Malathion@300ml in 150ltr water is done.


2. Fruit fly:

The female lays eggs in the mesocarp, after hatching the maggots feed themselves on fruit pulp which will destroy the fruit.


Treatment:

To control this pest spraying with Malathion@300ml in 150ltr water is done.


Papaya Varieties:


Coorg Honey Dew :

Famously known as 'Madhubindu' and is developed for table just as preparing reason. The assortment bears greenish-yellow elliptical formed fruits with orange thick fragile living creature and great flavor. The assortment can be kept up unadulterated by developing in segregation. Because of its brilliant fruit quality it brings great market esteem.

Pusa Dwarf :

It is a dioecious variety with dwarf plants and medium-sized (1-2 kg) oval fruits. The plant starts bearing from 25 to 30 cm above-ground level and is comparatively drought hardy. This variety is very suitable for high-density planting.


Pusa Giant :

Plants are vigorous, sturdy and tolerant to strong wind. It is a dioecious cultivar with big-sized (2.5-3 kg) fruits, suitable for canning industry.

Pusa Majesty :

A gynodioecious one, open minded to viral infections and root hitch nematodes. The assortment is reasonable for papain creation and is practically identical to C0.2 assortment for papain yield. The fruits are medium-sized, 1-1.5 kg in weight, round fit as a fiddle and have better keeping quality. It begins fruiting 146 days from the hour of transplanting. The assortment is open minded to root hitch nematode.


Pusa Delicious :


This is a gynodioecious line with medium-tall plants, starts yielding 8 months after planting and has good quality fruits (10°-13° Brix). The fruit is medium-sized (1-2 kg) with deep orange flesh having excellent flavour. It is grown as a table purpose variety.


Pusa Dwarf :

Medium size fruits, oval in shape and suitable for high-density planting.


CO.1 :


It is determination from cultivar Ranchi done by TNAU, Coimbatore. The plant is predominate in propensity, delivering the main fruit inside 60-75 cm from the beginning. Fruit is medium-sized, round, has smooth greenish-yellow skin, substance orange-yellow, delicate, firm. It is modestly delicious with great keeping-quality. The questionable papain scent is for all intents and purposes missing in the natural products.


CO.2 :


It is a determination sanitized from a nearby sort at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. Natural products are medium-sized, obovate, greenish yellow, furrowed at the peak, tissue red in shading, delicate to firm, tolerably succulent with great keeping-quality. It is a reasonable kind for extraction of papain. It gives 4-6g dried papain/natural product or 250-300 kg papain/ha.


CO. 3 :


The product of this crossover (CO. 2 x Sun Rise Solo) is bigger in size when contrasted and Solo and displays all the attractive characteristics of Solo. All out dissolvable solids (TSS) is as high as 13.8° Brix and normal natural product weight ranges from 1-1.5 kg. The natural products have a decent keeping quality. Each tree yields 100-120 fruits in two years.


CO. 5 :


It is a selection from Washington and isolated for its high papain production. It produces consistently 14-15 g dry papain/fruit. It gives 75-80 fruits/tree in two years with an average yield of 1,500-1,600 kg dried papain/ha.


Washington :


It is a table purpose variety. Fruits are round to ovate, medium-large in size with few seeds. When ripe, skin attains a bright yellow colour. The average weight of fruit ranges from 1.5-2 kg. Male and female plants are separate.

Solo :


It is a table purpose variety. The fruits are small with deep pink pulp and a sweet taste. Excellent for kitchen garden.

Ranchi :


It is a variety from Bihar and popular in south India. The fruits are oblong with dark yellow pulp and sweet taste.


IIHR39 and IIHR54 :


Developed at IIHR, Bangalore. This variety bears medium sized sweet fruit with high TSS (14.5° Brix) and better shelf life.


Taiwan-785 :

This variety is cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. The plant is dwarf in habit, producing the first fruit within 60-75 cm from the ground level. Fruits are oblong with thick orange red sweet pulp. Each tree yields 100-125 fruits in one year. It has a good keeping quality and disease tolerant.


Taiwan-786 :

It is a gynodioecious variety cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. The fruits are oblong with a tasty sweet pulp having few seeds. The plant starts bearing fruits from 100 cm above the ground level. The fruit weigh between 1-3 kg and has excellent keeping quality.


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