Potato Cultivation| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Annual Profits| BestPractiz-Agri
Updated: Jan 12
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the most significant food yield of the world. Potato is a mild yield developed under subtropical conditions in India. The potato is a harvest which has consistently been the 'helpless man's companion'. Potatoes are an efficient food; they give a wellspring of ease vitality to the human eating routine. It is a much extended ragged herb, typically 0.5 to 1m in tallness possesing underground stems bearing the eatable tubers. The leaves are odd pinate with an enormous terminal pamphlet. It blossoms in cymose panicles.
Potato is developed nearly in all conditions of India. Be that as it may, the significant potato paddling states are Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, West Bengal, Bihar and Assam.
Nutritional and Other benefits of Potatoes:
Potatoes are a rich wellspring of starch, nutrients particularly C and B1 and minerals. They contain 20.6 percent sugars, 2.1 percent protein, 0.3 percent fat, 1.1 percent rough fiber and 0.9 percent debris. They additionally contain a decent measure of fundamental amino acids like leucine, tryptophane and isoleucine and so forth.
· Potatoes are used for several industrial purposes such as for the production of starch and alcohol.
· Potato starch (farina) is used in laundries and for sizing yarn in textile mills.
· Potatoes are also used for the production of dextrin and glucose.
· As a food product itself, potatoes are converted into dried products such as ‘potato chips’, ‘sliced’ or ‘shredded potatoes’.
Potato is grown in India under diverse agroclimatic conditions. The varieties should make the best use of the agroclimatic conditions and give high yield.
· Kufri Jyoti,
· Kufri Muthu,
· Kufri Swarna,
· Kufri Thangam,
· Kufri Malar, Kufri Soga and Kufri Giriraj are commonly cultivated.
What are the Optimum conditions required for Potatoes?
Potato is a cool season crop. It flourishes best in cool areas where there is adequate dampness and ripe soil. Acceptable tuber development happens if soil temperatures are somewhere in the range of 17 and 19°C.Higher soil temperatures antagonistically influence the tuber improvement. Tuber advancement basically stops if temperatures ascend above 30°C. Daylight alongside cooler evenings is basic for lessening the spread of infections.
Potatoes can be created on a wide scope of soils, going from sandy topsoil, sediment soil, topsoil and earth soil. All around depleted sandy topsoil and medium soil sols, wealthy in humus are generally reasonable for potato. Basic or saline soils are not reasonable for potato development. They are appropriate to acidic soils (pH 5.0 to 6.5) as acidic conditions will in general cutoff scab sickness.
Nursery and Planting Technology:-
Potatoes are engendered vegetatively from tubers, either entire or cut into pieces. Numerous infections are conveyed by seed potatoes, and awful outcomes may follow the utilization of sick seed. Potatoes are developed from cut seed and little entire tubers, and both are acceptable given, they originated from malady free stock. The typical size of the seed piece is 1½ to 2 ounces. Numerous laborers demonstrated that the power of the youthful plant is straightforwardly identified with the size of the seed piece, the bigger the seed piece the more vivacious the plant.
An all around pounded seed bed is required for acceptable tuberisation of potato crop. Potato is taken as a Rabi crop. Not long after the collect of the Kharif crop, the field ought to be furrowed once 20-25 cm profound with soil turning furrow. From that point, a few cross nerve racking or four to five ploughings with neighborhood furrow ought to be finished. A couple of plankings are likewise expected to make the surface smooth and leveled. Enough dampness is fundamental at the hour of planting.
Selection of Seed:
Select sound and unadulterated seed of high yielding assortments, liberated from bugs and sicknesses. The tubers indicating any surface borne sickness like scab, mole, nematode disease or impact of decays ought to be sifted through. It is fitting to utilize confirmed seed for good yields.It is prudent to supplant the seed stock in each 3-4 years as the cultivars ruffian and result in low yields.
Solid, medium or little measured grew tubers are to be chosen for planting. Perfect size for planting is about 2.5 cm in breadth (25-40 gm). Greater estimated tubers might be cut into pieces longitudinally with 2-3 eyes in each piece. For planting one hectare around 15-20 quintals of seed potatoes are required. A column to push separation of 45 to 60 cm and plant to plant 15 to 20 cm ought to be kept up in the primary harvest.
Methods of Planting:
There are three methods of planting in India:
1. Planting potatoes on ridges: After preparation of field, ridges are made at a distance of 45-60 cm with the help of spade. Planting of potato is done on the ridges with the help of khurpi.
2. Flat method: Planting of potato is done on the flat surface in shallow furrows. Ridges are made after germination when plants attain 10-12 cm height. This method is suitable for light soils. Later on two to three earthings are done to make the ridges thick.
3. Planting potatoes on flat surface followed by ridges: In this method field is prepared and then shallow furrows are opened on the flat surface. Potatoes are planted in furrows and immediately after planting tubers, small ridges are made. Later on these ridges are made thick by earthing up of the side soil.
Planting Time: To make sure about exceptional returns, it is basic to plant the potatoes at the ideal time. The best time of planting is the point at which the most extreme and least temperatures are from 30°C to 32°C and 18°C to 20°C,respectively. The accompanying time calendar ought to be followed for acquiring great yields.
a) Early crop-25th September to 10th October
b) Main crop-15th October to 25th October.
c) Hills- February for Valleys and March-April at higher altitudes.
Supplement prerequisite in potato for example the prerequisite of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fluctuate with the dirt kind, its supplement status, assortment, trimming example and wellsprings of supplements. It is accounted for that legitimate soil fruitfulness the board in potato, alone records for 20.7% of the considerable number of components contributing yield. By and large 20-0 tons of FYM is suggested for potato development. FYM is applied to the field during land planning.
The basic time of weed-rivalry is upto 60 days and it is fundamental to keep the field sans weed during that period. Take up the first hoeing on 45th day without upsetting stolons. Second hoeing and earthing can be taken up at 60th day.
Potato crop is a lot of receptive to great water the executives. Evacuation of abundance water is fundamental. soil must be kept consistently damp yet solidifying or too wet states of soil ought not be permitted. Water system might be moderate to substantial yet over-flooding of water on edges ought to be kept away from.
Legitimate advancement of tubers relies on, air circulation, dampness accessibility and appropriate soil temperature. Hence, appropriate earthing up is fundamental. Earthing ought to be done when the plants are 15-22 centimeters high. The edges ought to be expansive, free and sufficiently high to conceal tubers. On the off chance that vital, a subsequent earthing might be done following fourteen days of the first. A form board furrow or ridger might be utilized for earthing up in huge territory.
Yield ought to be collected when haulms begin yellowing and falling on the ground. At this stage haulms ought to be expelled at ground level. The yield ought to be gathered around 15 days in the wake of cutting the haulms. There ought to be ideal dampness in the dirt at the hour of collect. In the wake of burrowing, the tubers might be permitted to dry on the ground for at some point in conceal.
With recommended package of practices, a yield of 300 to 400 quintals per hectare can be obtained. However, in hills except lower valleys the yields do not go beyond 250 quintals per hectare.
Potato Post Harvest Technology:
Separation of value for potatoes is mind boggling. In any case, top notch characteristics, in business exchange, incorporate more than 70 to 80% of tubers which are all around formed, splendor of shading (esp. reds, yellows, and whites), consistency, solidness, opportunity from following soil, opportunity from wounding (dark spot or break wounding), scraping or cleaning, development splits, growing, creepy crawly harm, Rhizoctonia Black Scurf, rot, greening, or different imperfections.
The harvested potatoes are packed in jute gunny bags.
Storage requirements of potato vary with the purpose for which potatoes are stored. The methods generally used for storage of potatoes are-
The room should have a high plinth and good ventilation. The doors and ventilators should be fitted with insect-proof wire-nets. Potatoes can be stored in single layers on sand. Frequent examination is necessary to discard tubers showing rotting symptoms.
In this framework, the tubers are put away in pits 60-75 cm profound and 2.5 meter long and 1 meter wide. These pits are made in a cool obscure spot. Water is sprinkled inside the pit to accomplish the cooling impact. Following two days neem leaves, dry grass or sugarcane refuse is lined all round the pit from inside. Bamboo stacks of 1.5 meter length are put inside the pit 1 meter separated for encouraging dissipation of the dampness saved because of transpiration of the put away tubers. Pits are then loaded up with tubers leaving 15 cm on top followed by a one-foot layer of dry grass. A cover is given over the pit as insurance from downpour and sun.
This is the best method of storing potatoes. At optimum conditions, potatoes should have good quality after storage of 3 to 5 weeks.
Pest and their control:
Adult and nymphs, both suck the sap thus weaken the plant. In severe infestation, they cause curling and deformation of young leaves. They secrete honey dew like substance and sooty, black mould is developed on affected parts.
Cut the foliage according region timing, to check infestation of aphid. If infestation of aphid and jassid observed take spray of Imidacloprid@50ml or Thiamethoxam@40 gm/acre/150ltr water.
They damage crop by cutting sprout at ground level. They feed at night so control becomes difficult.
As a preventive measure, use only well rotten cow dung. If infestation is observed, spray crop with Chlorpyrifos 20% EC@ 2.5ml per ltr of water. Apply Phorate 10G@4 kg/acre around plants and they cover with soil.
If infestation of tobacco caterpillar is observed then spraying with Quinalphos 25EC@ 20ml/10Ltr of water is done to control cut worms.
Leaf eating Caterpillar:
They feed on potato leaves and thus damage the crop.If infestation observed in field, spray crop with Chlorpyrifos or Profenofos@2ml or Lambda Cyhalothrin@1ml/Ltr of water.
Larva and adults damages crop by feeding on leaves.In initial phase of infestation, collect egg of beetle manually and then destroyed it away from the field. Take spray of Carbaryl@1gm per ltr of water.
They remain in soil and damage crop by feeding on roots, stem and tubers. Infected plants show drying up. Grubs make holes in tubers.
As preventive measures, broadcasting with Carbofuran 3G@12kg or Thimet 10G@7kg/acre should be done at the time of sowing.
Potato Tuber Moth:
It is major pest in field as well as in storage. It make tunnel in potato and feeds on flesh.
Use healthy and diseased free seeds for sowing. Use only well decomposed cow dung. If infestation is observed take spray of Carbaryl@1gm per Ltr of water.
Disease and their control:
Necrotic spots observed on lower leaves. The fungus due which infestation occurred lies in soil. It rapidly spread in high moisture and low temperature.
Avoid mono cropping of crop and follow crop rotation. If infestation is observed, spraying of Mancozeb@30gm or Copper oxychloride@30gm/10ltr water at 45 days 2-3 times at 10 days interval should be done.
Black speck observed on tubers. Affected plants show drying up. In infected tubers, at time of sprouting, black, brown color appear on eyes.
For planting use diseased free tubers. Before sowing, seed treatment with Mercury is essential. Avoid mono cropping and follow crop rotation. If land kept fallow for two years then severity of disease is reduced.
Infestation is observed on lower part of leaves and tip of leaves. Irregular water spots are seen on infected leaves. Around the spot white powdery growth is observed. In severe condition, white powdery growth is seen on nearby soil surface of infected plants.
This disease is rapidly spread in cloudy weather and after rains. If not controlled, it can cause loss up to 50%.
For sowing, use healthy and disease free seeds. If infestation is observed, take spray of Propineb@40gm/15Ltr of water.
It makes due in field just as away. Infection is spread quickly in low dampness condition. Light earthy colored to dim earthy colored injury are showed up on tainted tubers.
Utilize just well bad cow waste for application in field. Utilize unhealthy free seeds for planting. Stay away from profound planting of tubers. Follow crop pivot and maintain a strategic distance from mono editing in same field. Before planting, treat seeds with Emisan email@example.com% (2.5gm/ltr of water) for five minutes.
Bacterial soft rot:
At base of plant black leg appears along with browning of infected tubers also plant give yellow appearance. In severe condition plant wilt and get died. On infected tubers soft, reddish spot appear on infected tubers.
For planting, utilize sound and ailment free tubers. Before planting treat seed with Boric Acid@3% (300gm/10Ltr of water) for 30minutes and afterward dried in conceals. Before capacity of tubers rehash the treatment with Boric Acid. In fields regions, treat seed with Carbendazim@1% (100gm/10Ltr of water) for 15minutes for compelling control of infection.
Mosaic affected plants give faint yellow appearance along with stunted growth. Size and number of tuber get reduced.
For sowing use healthy and diseased free seeds. Inspect field regularly and destroyed infected plant and parts immediately. Take spray of Metasystox or Rogor@300ml in 200 litres of water per acre.