• HariKishore Reddy

Sandalwood Cultivation In India| Health Benefits| Pest and Disease Control| BestPractiz-agri

Updated: Apr 27

The word Sandal is gotten from Chandana (Sanskrit). The Wood and Oil has been utilized as one of the principle materials in Indian medication for a considerable length of time. It is said that sandalwood discovers its utilization in human life, especially Indian culture and developments from "Support to Cremation".


Sabdal wood scientifically know as Santalum album. It is regularly known as East Indian sandalwood or chandana belongs to the family Santalaceae. It is exceptionally significant and turning out to be imperiled species. It is circulated everywhere throughout the nation and over 90% lies in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu covering 8300 sq kms.


Sandalwood assumes a significant job in the strict existence of Indians. The basic oil got from this wood has involved critical spot in perfumery enterprises/advertise. In spite of the fact that it is accessible in some different nations still the Indian Sandalwood has held its predominance over different sources due to its quality.


Health Benefits:-

Esteemed for its heartwood which is emphatically scented. The wood is utilized for cutting and extravagant work. Oil refined and utilized in perfumery and medications for which it is the most important wood in India.


A portion of the Major ventures like Attar Industry, Perfumery, Cosmetics and Soap, Pan Masala and other pharmaceutical organizations relies upon Sandal wood Oil.


Sandalwood oil was utilized generally to treat skin sickness, skin inflammation, diarrhea, gonorrhea and number of different afflictions.


Sandalwood basic oil is considered in fragrance based treatment to be successful in rewarding dry skin, general skin bothering and skin inflammation other than going about as a state of mind enhancer. Sandalwood oil is viable in the treatment of bronchitis, dry determined hacks, laryngitis just as sore throats.


Sandalwood oil may also help in to relive diarrhea, sickness and a few instances of cystitis, fever, dermatitis, joint pain, hyper corrosiveness, a sleeping disorder, stress, tension.


Sandalwood Oil is a characteristic fixative for all the top class scents. As respects the scent, Cosmetics and Soap Industries, East Indian Sandalwood Oil is one of the most significant normal fixative fixings.

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Optimum Conditions:-


Climate:

Rainfall in the chief sandal tracts varies between 625 mm to 1625 mm. Temperature 19°C to 28.5°C.

Soil:

Sandalwood said to grow better in the Red soil which is rich with the iron oxides or rust that is mostly found in the underneath rocks. Discovered additionally on rough ground stony or gravelly soil. Grows best the air where the water flow is high or the land is wet most of the times naturally. Those developed on these already known standard soils are said to frame increasingly scented heartwood.


Stays away from saline (soil containing more salt) and calcareous soil (soil containing more calcium carbonate) and isn't commonly found on dark cotton soil.



CULTIVATION OF SANDALWOOD:

1. Nursery stage:


It is always better to obtain seed from known superior populations. Good seed sources in natural stands have been identified at Chitteri, Dharmapuri District (Tamil Nadu); and Yedehalli in Shimoga District and Royalpad of Kolar District (Karnataka) and Marayoor (Kerala).


Procedure Involved:-


Seed Collection:

Fruits are collected fresh from more than 20 years old trees and are soaked in water and rubbed to remove the soft pulp; then it will be dried.

Seed Storage:

Seeds are naked, lack test and are dried and stored in Polybags or gunny bags.

Pre-treatment:

Acid scarification with concentrated Sulphuric acid for 30 minutes with string and washing in running water, or soak the seeds in 0.05% Gibberellic acid overnight.


Seed Bed Preparation:

Two types of seed beds are used to raise sandal seedlings: Sunken and Raised beds. Both of them perform equally well under different climatic conditions.


Seed beds are formed with only sand and red earth in the ratio 3:1 and are thoroughly mixed with nematicides (Ekalux or Thimet at 500 g per bed of 10 m x 1 m). Around 2.5 kg seed is spread uniformly over the bed, covered with straw which should be removed when the leaves start appearing on the seedlings.


When seedlings have reached 4 to 6 leaf stage they are transplanted to polybags along with a seed of Cajanus cajan, Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex. Dc, Cassia fistula L., Mimosa pudica L., etc., the primary host for better growth of sandal.


Seedlings are carefully removed from beds with all roots intact; roots should not be allowed to dry. Shade can be provided for a week immediately after transplantation. Watering is to be done once a day, but excess moisture is to be avoided. Host plants are to be pruned frequently, so that they do not over grow sandal and hamper its growth.


Polybags should contain soil mixture of ration 2:1:1 (Sand: Red earth: Farmyard manure). It has been found that polybags of 30 x 14 cm size are the best. To avoid nematode attack Ekalux of 2 gm/polybag or 200 gm for 1m3 of polybag mixture should be thoroughly mixed before filling the bags.


Shifting may be done once in two months to avoid root penetrating soil and grading is to be done once in three months. Weeding is to be done at regular intervals.


Plantable seedlings of about 30 cm height can be raised in 6-8 month’s time. A well branched seedling with a brown stem is ideal for planting in the field.

Problems at Nursery Stage:

Initially Sandal suffers from a very virulent disease caused by combined fungal and Nematode infection. The initial symptom is that of wilting of leaves followed by sudden chlorosis and root decay. On account of this the mortality rate is very high.

Control:

Can be controlled by the application of Nematicide (Ekalux) and fungicide (Dithane). Seeds beds are to be sprayed with fungicide Dithane Z-78 (0.25%) once in 15 days to avoid fungal attack and 0.02% Ekalux solution once in a month to avoid Nematode attack.


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Growth stage:


Regeneration has been obtained successfully by following methods:

  • · Dibbling of seeds into bushes

  • · Dibbling of seeds in pits or mounds

  • · Planting container raised seedlings in the nurseries

Dibbling of Seeds into Bushes:


This method is adopted in open scrub jungles with lot of bushes.Seeds are planted during rainstorm. An instrument can be made utilizing a bamboo post of 4 to 6 cm interior distance across and a length of 1.5 m to plant seeds. The septa at the hubs are expelled and one finish of the post is honed or an empty metal piece is joined. The post is presented at the base of the shrubbery and through the opening 4 to 5 seeds are moved to the base of the hedge. Genuinely great achievement has been accomplished by this strategy.


Dibbling of Seeds into Pits or Mounds:


The usual trench mound technique adopted in forest for other species can also adopted for sandal. But here a perennial host plant is also grown along with sandal either on the mound or in the pit.


Planting Container Raised Seedlings in the Nurseries:


Pits of 50 cm3 are dug out at an espacement of 4 m x 4 m. Healthy sandal seedlings; preferably above 30 cm in height are planted in the pits. Miscellaneous secondary forest species as host plants are planted in the same pit or they may be planted in separate pits in a quincunx pattern. This method has proved successful in many forest areas. At the time of planting in the field a perennial host, if given, increases the growth of sandal, otherwise it shows stunted growth with pale yellow leaves and ultimately dies in about one year. Sandal has over 150 host plants, some of the good hosts being Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia nilotica, Pongamia pinnata, Melia dubia, Wrightia tinctoria and Cassia siamea.




Growth and Yield:


Heartwood Formation and Oil Content:


Heartwood development in sandal trees for the most part begins around 10-13 years old, yet what triggers this procedure has not been very surely known. Certain variables, for the most part identifying with stress, for example, gravelly dry soil, insolation, and scope of rise (500-700 m), appear to give the correct condition to the development of heartwood, regardless of the size of the stem following 10 years old. The event of heartwood shifts. The estimation of heartwood is because of its oil content, and the prevalence of the oil is expected over the level of santalol.


• In a tree the oil content is higher in the root, next most elevated in the stem at ground level, and step by step tightens towards the tip of the stem.


• Similarly, there is inclination in oil content from the center to the outskirts of the heartwood in a stem


Contingent on their age, trees can be called youthful or developed, in spite of the fact that this is an observational arrangement and holds great just for a specific populace. The oil substance and its organization may vary at a similar age:


• Young trees (stature under 10m, girth under 50 cm, and heartwood distance across 0.5-2 cm) have heartwood with 0.2-2 percent oil content,which has 85 percent santalol, 5 percent acetic acid derivation, and 5 percent santalenes.


• Mature trees (stature 15-20m, bigness 0.5-1 m, and heartwood measurement 10-20cm) have heartwood with oil substance of 2-6.2 percent, which has more than 90 percent santalol,3-5 percent acetic acid derivation, and 3 percent santalenes.



In spite of the fact that sandal tree is viewed as a moderate developing tree under woodland conditions (1 cm bigness/year), it can develop at the pace of 5 cm of size or more every year under good soil and dampness conditions. The heartwood arrangement in sandal tree begins around ten years old. So far development information is accessible just in regard of regular woodland for the most part from Javadis in Tamil Nadu and Dharwad territories of Karnataka. The table underneath gives a thought of development and improvement.


Varieties:


Of the 15 different species of sandalwood that grow throughout the world, there are 2 main varieties that are traded internationally. These are Santalum spicatum (Australian sandalwood) and Santalum album (Indian sandalwood).


Sandalwood (Chandan) Tree Types in India:


Chandan wood is the second generally costly on the planet and sells at an amazing cost. Subsequently, the business creation of it very well may be productive. There are numerous kinds of chandan in India.


1. Indian Chandan:


Botanical Name: Santalum album

The most well known wellspring of sandalwood, this little tropical tree is local to south India. It can grow up to 13-20 feet in tallness and holds different restorative properties. The fundamental oil of this tree sells at significant expenses. In addition, it is additionally a significant piece of Indian culture and can satisfy 100 years. The tree, notwithstanding, goes under security, as over-abuse is prompting their eradication.


2. Red Chandan:

Botanical Name: Pterocarpus santalinus

Likewise well known as Rakta chandan, it is another assortment local toward the Eastern ghats of Southern India. The tree is very well known for its wood, which has an extraordinary and energetic red shading. Be that as it may, the delightful looking wood of this tree isn't fragrant. It is generally little and can grow up to 20-25 feet tall. Red Chandan is likewise acclaimed for its customary restorative uses, for example, in the treatment of diarrhea, seeping, as a calming and antipyretic.


3. Sweet Chandan


Botanical Name: Santalum collection L

It is likewise an evergreen tree with a plenty of restorative advantages. Both the wood and oil separates hold therapeutic qualities. This kind of Chandan can be valuable in the treatment of bronchitis, fever, regular cold, migraines, and urinary tract contaminations. The basic oil from this tree is mainstream really taking shape of cleansers, scents, and beautifying agents. The oil additionally has utilizes in the food businesses also.


4. Malayagiri Chandan:


Botanical Name: Santalum

An evergreen tree, Malayagiri Chandan, can grow up to 20-30 feet high. It is local to Mysore, Coorg, Hyderabad, Nilgiri, and Western ghats of South India. In spite of the fact that there are numerous assortments of Chandan, Malayagiri Chandan or Shrikhand is the best and genuine of all! The tree has a beige-white shading wood with a charming aroma. The wood of these trees has utilizes really taking shape of delightful boxes and stools.


Pest and Disease Control:


Spike disease is one of the important diseases of sandal. This disease is caused by mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO). It can occur at any stage of development of the tree.As the infection advances, the new leaves become littler, smaller or increasingly pointed and less in number with each progressive year until the new gives an appearance of fine spike. At the development phase of sickness the bury nodal separation on twigs turns out to be little, haustorial association between the host and sandal tree breaks and the plant kicks the bucket in around 2 to 3 years.


Spread of infection is irregular and the ailment is transmitted in nature by creepy crawly vectors. It has been discovered that other creepy crawly vectors notwithstanding Nephotettix virescens may likewise be answerable for transmission of illness. So far no changeless medicinal measures have been endorsed for control of spike infection.


Stem borers Zeuzera coffease Nietn (red borer) Indarbela quardinotata Walker (bark-feeding caterpillar) and Aristobia octofasiculata Aurivillius (heartwood borer) are some of the pests causing considerable damage to living trees.