• HariKishore Reddy

Shallots Cultivation| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Profits in India| BestPractiz-Agri

Updated: Jan 12

Aggregatum onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum Don.) is one of the most established bulb crops in the world and widely developed and expended in Southern conditions of India. On worldwide scale aggregatum onion is a minor bulb crop anyway in South East Asia particularly in India it is a profoundly gainful crop.The bulblets of aggregatum onion are littler than bulbs of normal onion (Allium cepa L). In some cases the blossoms are framed in aggregatum onion yet development is broadly by vegetative methods (bulblets) differentiation to normal onion.

It is celebrated for its sharpness and imitates essentially by division of bulbs, as opposed to by seed.


Uses and Health Benefits of Shallots:


It contributes critical healthy benefit to the human eating routine and has medicinal properties.

It is primarily consumed for their unique flavour or for their ability to enhance the flavour of other foods because of the presence of volatile compound known as allyl-propyl disulphide


1.Small onions are widely used in the south Indian kitchen mainly for seasoning of curries and preparation of different types of sambar, a lentil-based dish.

2.Small onion pickles in red vinegar are common in many Indian restaurants, served along with sauces and papad on the condiments tray.

3.In India it is used as a home remedy for sore throats by eating with jaggery or sugar.

4.In Nepal, these are used as one of the ingredients for making momo.


5.In Iran, grated shallot mixed with dense yogurt, a combination served in almost every restaurant.

6.It also has medicinal properties. Traditionally it is used to reduce fever and to cure wounds.

Nutritional value of small onion per 100 g:


Energy: 301 kJ (72 kcal)


Carbohydrates: 16.8 g


Sugars: 7.87 g


Dietary fiber: 3.2 g


Fat: 0.1 g


Protein: 2.5 g


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine): 0.06 mg (5%)


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): 0.02 mg (2%)


Vitamin B3 (Niacin): 0.2 mg (1%)


Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid): 0.29 mg (6%)


Vitamin B6: 0.345 mg (27%)


Vitamin B9 (Folate): 34 μg (9%)


Vitamin C: 8 mg (10%)


Calcium : 37 mg (4%)


Iron : 1.2 mg (9%)


Magnesium: 21 mg (6%)


Manganese: 0.292 mg (14%)


Phosphorus: 60 mg (9%)


Potassium: 334 mg (7%)


Zinc: 0.4 mg (4%)


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What are the Optimum conditions required for Shallots?


Soil:

It comes up very well under tropical conditions with adequate soil moisture.It becomes very well between a pH scope of 6-7. Well drained loamy soils are the best suited while in clayey soil, the bulb formation is hindered.


Climate:

It is a harvest of tropical and subtropical area which are open minded to hot and sticky tropical atmosphere, better resilience to nuisance and maladies and have longer stockpiling life than the normal onion. Overwhelming downpours during germination just as bulb arrangement are malicious to trim development.


Season:

Onion is highly sensitive to temperature and photoperiod. Difference in onion yield is caused by different planting times of the year. In Tamil Nadu, It is being cultivated throughout the year. The best season for planting of small onion bulbs are April – July, October-November and January – March. Heavy rains and extreme winter are not favorable for this crop.

Varieties:


It is otherwise called little onion, potato onion, underground onion, shallots, multiplier onion, settling onions, ever-prepared onion and Egyptian ground onion noted for its strength and early development than the normal onion.


The aggregatum onion Allium cepa var. aggregatum delivers little bulbs which structure a collected bunch and is proliferated through bulblets and furthermore by seeds. The developed varieties CO 1, CO 2, CO 3, CO 4 and MDU 1 are spread by bulblets just, since they are not created any seeds. While the varieties CO (On) 5, created seeds and proliferated by the two bulblets and furthermore seed.


Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is one of the pioneer Institutes working in little onion. Examination on little onion had been begun as ahead of schedule as 1970 and because of consistent endeavors, six varieties have been discharged from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore in little onion. The subtleties are;


CO 1:

It is a clonal choice from CS 450 an onion type presented from Manachanallur discharged during the year 1965. The harvest span is 90 days and yields around 10 t/ha. Bulbs are medium in size, red in shading. The bulb weight per plant is 55 to 60 g with a normal 8 bulbs for each plant. The plant is medium in stature (30 cm) with green leaves. It is genuinely sharp with a medium TSS content (8-90 brix).


CO 2:


It is a choice from germplasm type CS 911. The harvests yields 12 t/ha in 65 days, the bulbs are blood red in shading and respectably greater in size. The bulb weight per plant ranges from 60 to 65 g. with a normal of 9 bulbs for every plant. The leaves are green with round and hollow shape. The plant stature is 30 cm. The quantity of shoots per plant ranges from 7 to 9. The weight reduction during capacity is lesser than CO 1. This variety is impactful with high TSS content (120 brix), this variety resistance to burple smear.


CO 3:

It is a clonal determination from the open pollinated descendants of CS 450 and resistance to thrips. The harvest length is 65-70 days and yields 15.8 t/ha. The bulbs are pink in shading and bolder in size. The bulb length and size are 3.5 cm and 8.3 cm individually. The mean bulb weight per plant is 75 g. The quantity of bulbs per plant ran from 8 to 10. The plant has light green erect round and hollow leaves. The plant stature is 40 cm. The quantity of shoots ranges from 6 to 8. The bulbs are greater than CO 2 with great purchaser bid. The plants are tolerably resistnace to thrips. The bulbs store well for 120 days without growing in very much ventilated store rooms. The variety contains 17.5 % dry issue with 0.53 % sulfur and 13.0 0brix TSS.


MDU 1:


It is a selection from the Sempatti local. This variety has uniform big sized bulbs with bright red colour and better keeping quality without any weight loss. Its yield potential is 13 t/ha. It is resistant to thrips and tolerant to lodging due to thick erect leaves.


CO 4:

It is a mixture subordinate of the cross AC 863 x CO 3 and resistance to thrips. The harvest term is 65 days. It yields 19 t/ha. The leaves are light green, erect and tube shaped. The quantity of bulbs per plant differs from 8 to 13 with a normal load of 90 g for every bunch. Bulbs are alluring light pink striking in size with great customer offer. The bulbs store well more than 150 days.


CO (On) 5:


It is a high yielding variety created by mass family technique for choice. This variety has the capacity of free blossoming and seed set all through Tamil Nadu. It has high bulb yield 18.9 t/ha (18.8 percent higher than CO 4) in a harvest span of 90 days. It is free blossoming type with seed setting capacity of 250-300 kg/ha thus it is proliferated through seeds. Walk – July for bulb creation and November – January for seed creation. It has alluring pink hued striking size bulbs. The all out dissolvable solids content is 13 0brix. The sharpness rule estimated as pyruvic corrosive is 2.37 µg/g of new weight.


Agrifound red:


This variety was discharged from National Horticulture Research and Development Foundation, Nasik, Pune. This variety suggested for development in Kharif and Rabi season in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Normal size of bunch is 7.15cm with normal load of 65-67 g. Normal quantities of bulblets per group is 5-6. Shade of bulblets is light red. This variety developed in 65-67 days in the wake of planting.


Arka ujjwal:


It is a multiplier onion variety with uniform splendid dim red bulb shading, compound bulb with level shape, bulb size 4-5 cm,number of bulblets/bulb 3-5, bulb weight 40-45g, TSS 16-18%,dry issue content 14-16% and bulb yield 20-25t/ha in 85 days.


Nursery and Planting Technology:

Seeds and Seed rate:


An amount of 1200 kg of seed bulbs (medium estimated bulbs) or bulblets would be required to plant one hectare. The bulblets are planted on edges. The separation between the edges is 30-45 cm and between bulblets is 10-15 cm. Bulb or bulblet size assume a significant job in development of bloom stalks. Determination of huge mother bulbs rather than medium or little size has huge effect on the development of blossom stalks in little onions.

Nursery:


Raised beds of 1 m width and advantageous length must be framed. Onion seeds must be planted in the lines set apart with the dispersing of 10 cm between and secured with sand or FYM. At that point the beds must be mulched with dry grass. Following planting, watering ought to be finished with rose can. Ordinary watering ought to be done twice in a day.


A firm, damp soil is required around the onion seed significantly under the ideal conditions. The seedlings will grow five days in the wake of planting. At the point when all the seeds are sprouted the mulch must be expelled. The seedlings will be prepared for transplanting following 45 days of planting. At the point when soils are cold and wet, germination may take as long as 30 days. Hard soils can decrease plant numbers particularly where seed energy isn't significant.


Transplanting:

There are two strategies for planting are polished. One is edges and wrinkle strategy and the other is level bed framework. In the edges and wrinkle strategy, edges and wrinkles are framed 45 cm separated. The bulbs are planted in a dividing of 10 cm separated on both the sides of the edges.


In the level bed framework, 3 x 2 m size level beds are shaped and bulbs or seedlings are planted at a dividing of 15 x 10 cm. The field ought to be irrigated following planting and again on the third day. At that point the field is irrigated once in 7 to 10 days relying upon the dirt dampness.


Drip and Fertigation system:

Little onion can likewise be developed under drip and fertigation framework. For this 1.20 m width and 0.30 m tallness raised bed must be framed. Drip laterals with drippers at separating of 30 cm must be laid along the raised bed. Overnight wetting ought to be given to the beds. At that point bulbs or seedlings must be planted at a dividing of 15 x 10 cm in 6 columns.


From the suggested portion of composts (60:60:30 kg NPK/ha), 75 % of P2O5 ought to be applied as basal during last furrowing. The rest of the amount of composts ought to be applied through fertigation according to the calendar referenced underneath.


Weed management:


Onion exhibits greater susceptibility to weed competition as compared to other crops due to its inherent characteristics such as their slow growth, small stature, shallow roots and lack of dense foliage. Showering of pre-rise herbicides keeps the harvest in weed free conditions during the beginning phases. At later stage, second flush of weeds will influence the bulb arrangement. Hand weeding assists with keeping the weed populace underneath financial limit level all through the yield development period.


Substance weed control is additionally rehearsed instead of manual weeding. Utilization of pre developing weedicide pendimethilin (30% EC) @ 4-5 ml/l or oxyflurofen (23.5% EC) @ 1.5-2ml/l soon after planting and a couple of hand weeding is prescribed to control the weeds in little onion.


Intercropping:

Aggregatum onion is a short duration garden land crop and responds well to intercropping system with long duration crops like banana and sugarcane.


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Harvesting:


The crop comes to harvest by ninety days after planting during winter and seventy days in summer. Fifteen days before harvest, the plants are sprayed with 500 ppm of maleic hydrazide so as to enhance the shelf life on the storage house. Pre-collect foliar shower of Maleic hydrazide @ 2000 ppm + carbendazim @ 1000 ppm at 30 days before reap improved the yield and nature of the bulbs and limit the post-gather misfortunes. At the time of maturity, more than 75 % of the leaves will dry up. One week before harvest, the last irrigation is done and the bulbs are harvested.


Post harvest management:


Curing:


Field relieving followed by conceal restoring is finished with sufficient ventilation. The tops are evacuated and afterward the bulbs are dried in (conceal relieving) and afterward put away in an all around ventilated capacity structure. It assists with shielding the bulbs from sun burning, improves the bulb shading and keeps the external scale dry.


Storage:


Little onion is a significant element of south Indian dishes. Be that as it may, the onion bulbs are collected more than once in per year. To keep away from advertise request both in household and fare market and all year gracefully, the bulbs should be put away. Around 35 to 40 percent of onion is assessed to be lost during postharvest taking care of. As a rule, the misfortunes because of decrease in weight, growing and spoiling (rot) were seen as 20 to 25, 4 to 5 and 10 to 12 percent individually. Continuous transpiration and breath during capacity causes raised weight reduction and makes the bulb defenseless to different capacity sicknesses. Legitimate capacity structures or of appropriate field strategies combined with capacity temperature assumes a significant job in improving the postharvest life and nature of onion.


Packaging:


Deterioration because of wrong stockpiling and bundling is additionally one of the serious issues went up against by little onion cultivators. Satisfactory and legitimate bundling shields the bulb from physical (immovability), physiological (weight) and obsessive (rot) crumbling. Bulbs are pressed in 40-50 kg jute (hessian) packs, gunny sacks, plastic got packs or plastic and wooden crates for better stockpiling and transportation. A large portion of the ranchers are utilizing plastic/nylon got packs for residential just as fare reason on the grounds that these sacks are progressively practical, effectively accessible and appealing.


Plant Protection:


Among the different requirements influencing onion development, biotic worry because of irritations and ailments cause colossal prudent misfortune, other than diminishing the yield and quality. The significant bugs of aggregatum onion viz., (Thrips tabaci L.), leaf excavator (Liriomyza sp.), onion fly and cutworm (Spodoptera litura F.) and maladies viz., purple smear (Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif.), basal decay (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae W. C. Snyder and H. N. Hansen), stemphylium leaf scourge (Stemphylium vesicarium), colletotrichum curse/anthracnose/twister illness (Colletotrichum gleosporiodes), white decay (Sclerotial decay), pink root (Pyrenochaeta terrestris), damping off, wool buildup, dark shape, bacterial delicate decay, onion yellow diminutive person ailment and Iris yellow spot malady limit the creation and efficiency of onion.


Integrated pest and disease management cultural practices:


· Growing two rows of maize or inner row of wheat and outer row of maize as barrier crops around field border at least 30 days before onion planting.

· Selection of disease free bulbs for planting.

· Deep ploughing in hot summer, regular hoeing, flooding of infested field and clean cultivation.

· The field should be well drained and free from weeds.

· Crop rotation of 4-5 years with non-host crop will help to reduce basal rot, white rot, pink root rot and Iris yellow spot disease.


· Mixed cropping with tobacco and sorghum is effective to manage basal rot incidence.

· Solarization of soil at high temperature reduces the white and pink root rot incidence.

· Growing of small onion under drip irrigation system.

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