• HariKishore Reddy

Soybeans Cultivation| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Annual Profits| BestPractiz-Agri

Updated: Jan 12

The soybean or soya bean (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.


It is a rich source of Protein additionally astounding source of fiber. Oil extricated from soybean contain limited quantity of immersed fat. Creation of soybean in India is commanded by Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh which add to 89 percent of the all out Soybean creation in nation.


Nutritional and Health Benefits of Soybean:


Soybeans are composed of protein and also contain good amounts of fat and carbs. 100 grams of boiled soybeans contain:

  • Calories – 173

  • Fiber – 6 grams

  • Carbohydrates – 9.9 grams

  • Protein – 16.6 grams

  • Fat – 9 grams

Health Benefits of Soybean:

Soybean has been part of the traditional Indian diets for centuries. It contains phytonutrients and antioxidants that are linked to numerous health benefits. And don’t forget the protein content, which is in abundance. Here are the potential health benefits of soybeans.


1. Helps relieve sleep disorders


One of the essential advantages of soybean is that very few realize that soybean can help relieve the symptoms of sleep disorder. As per health professionals, soybeans can help in decreasing the event of a insomnia alongside other sleep disorders . Since soybean contains magnesium in high sums, which is connected to expanding the quality, tranquility, and length of your rest, it would be useful that you include it in your day by day diet.


2. Soybean may help manage diabetes


Eating soybean is a compelling method to oversee and forestall diabetes. As per a few examinations, soybean can build the insulin receptors in the body. Therefore, it can keep diabetes from happening in any case or can help deal with the illness viably in the event that you are as of now experiencing it. Further, the starch content in soybean is inconceivably low, which makes it a phenomenal enemy of diabetic food


3. Help improve blood circulation


According to the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, iron and copper are two fundamental minerals that are found rich in soybean. The two segments are fundamental for the creation of red platelets (RBCs). According to health professionals, with a fitting measure of red platelets in the body, the basic organ frameworks, including the furthest points of the body, can get appropriate oxygen and blood stream that is necessary to work productively. With the expansion in red platelets, your body encounters an expanded metabolic movement.


4. Essential for pregnancy


Soybean is rich in folic corrosive and nutrient B complex that is basic for pregnant ladies. Pregnant ladies are advised to expend soy-based natural items as folic corrosive in soybean helps in the counteraction of neural cylinder absconds in newborn children, guaranteeing a solid conveyance just as a sound infant.


5. Soybean for healthy bones


Soybeans have high mineral and nutrient substance. The amazing degrees of zinc, selenium, copper, magnesium, and calcium in soybean help in keeping the bones more grounded and sound. Every one of these components in soy can help in advancing the osteotropic movement, permitting the new unresolved issues, making the current ones more grounded, and accelerate the bone mending process.


6. Aids healthy digestion


Dietary fiber is available in soybean in high amounts. Dietary fiber is basic for complete body working and assumes an imperative job in the stomach related framework. Fiber helps in building up your stool, permitting it to travel through the digestion tracts easily and leave the body. Fiber helps in invigorating the peristaltic movement in the body, which is the compression of the muscles in the stomach related framework that push food through the framework. Individuals experiencing clogging are prescribed to devour fiber-rich nourishments as it helps appropriate solid discharges.


7. Relieve menopausal symptoms


Soybean contains isoflavones in bounty, which is an imperative segment of the female regenerative framework. At the point when ladies arrive at menopause, they experience an intense drop in estrogen levels. This can prompt a few menopausal manifestations like hot flushes, stomach cramps, hunger torments, temperament swings, and so on. Isoflavones tie the estrogen receptors such that your body doesn't feel the change. Remembering soybean for your day by day diet can help in mitigating menopausal side effects.


8. Improves heart health


As indicated by wellbeing specialists, there are sure unsaturated fats essential for a sound cardiovascular framework. Two of those are found in soybean called linolenic corrosive and linoleic corrosive, prominently known as omega-3 unsaturated fats. Omega-3 unsaturated fats support calming impacts and assume an essential job in mind and eye wellbeing. Devouring soybean can help support your cardiovascular framework by decreasing the awful cholesterol levels alongside dealing with your mind and vision.


9. Possesses anti-cancer properties


The vast majority don't have a clue, however the elevated levels of antioxidants in soybean could help to prevent the beginning of various tumors. As indicated by an examination directed at Purdue University, the cell reinforcements found in soybean can help execute various cancer cells and expel free radicals from the body. Antioxidants are answerable for killing free radicals, which, if not cared for, can make solid cells transform into dangerous tumors and disease cells.


10. Aids healthy weight management


Probably the most compelling motivation why soybean is a commended food over the globe is that it can assist you with getting more fit. High protein content in soybean takes into account the improvement of less fatty muscle. And furthermore, protein causes you remain more full, keeping you from crunching undesirable snacks during odd hours. Further, it controls insulin levels, along these lines checking stoutness in a sound way. A few examinations have discovered that soybean consolidates against weight impacts.


What are the Optimum conditions required for Soybean?


Soil:

It gives good result, when grown on well drained, fertile loamy soils. pH of 6 to 7.5 is favorable for optimum yield of soybean. Water logged, saline/alkaline soils are not suitable for its cultivation. Low temperature affect crop severely.


Climate:

Soybean needs around 15 to 320°C temperature for germination yet for quick development the harvest needs higher temperature. The harvest requires around 60-65 cm yearly precipitation dry season at blooming or not long before flowering brings about bloom and case drops, while rains during maturity impairs the grain quality of soybean harmful.


Varieties:


Co-1: Resistant to stem fly & pod borer, moderately resistant to Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV). Purple flowers, creamy yellow seed coat, relatively low hull and linolenic acid content, determinate.


Co Soya-2: Tolerant to YMV and leaf miner. Purple flower, determinate, dark green leaves, yellow seed.


ADT-1: Cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu. Tolerance to leaf miner and leaf webber. Determiante, grey pubescence, yellowish white seed coat, brown hilum, suitable as relay crop in rice fallows.


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Nursery and Planting Technology:


Land Preparation:

At the time of sowing one deep ploughing and two harrowings should be given to maintain optimum moisture at sowing.


Sowing:

Two cropping seasons of soybean monsoon and spring. In case of monsoon season most common time of sowing is onset of monsoon or last week of June to first week of July while spring sowing is done between 15th of February and 15th of March.


Method of Sowing :

Line sowing by seed drill followed as it needs less seeds/ha, weeding and hoeing may be done conveniently.


Seed treatment:

Seeds are treated with rhizobium culture.

Spacing:

A 45-60 cm X 2.5 cm spacing is good for Kharif crop and 30-45 X 2.5 cm during spring season. 2-3 cm in heavy soils and 3-4 cm light soils.


Seed rate:

Soybean grown for grain purpose needs about 20-30 kg seed/ha but for fodder crop needs about 70-75 kg/ha during Kharif season and 100-120 kg/ha during spring.


Irrigation:

In case of monsoon crop irrigation is not needed and it is grown rainfed. However during summer the crop can be grown only under assured irrigation and it needs about 5-6 irrigations. The crop should be irrigated at the following critical growth stages to minimize water.


1. Sprouting Stage.


2. Flowering pod initiation and bean filling stages are important from yield point of view.


Weed Control:

Keep plot weed free upto 40 days by one or two hoeings, two weedings upto 40 days. Herbicides such as Toke 25, 1.5 to 2 Kg/ha pre-emergence before sowing controls the weeds.

Fertilizers:


Soybean gives higher positive reaction to applied nitrogen over harmoniously fixed climatic nitrogen through its underlying foundations alone which demonstrates that nitrogen fixed by soybean pulls isn't sufficient for its and improvement. Harvest is provided with 10-15% of complete nitrogen necessity.


Inter cropping:

Mixed with maize, sesamum etc. Inter cropping with Tur, Cotton, drilled paddy sorghum, cotton, sugarcane. It can be rotated with wheat, potato, gram, tobacco.


Harvesting and Yield:

Pods become dry and leaves changes their color to yellow and fall of, it is sign of crop is ready for harvesting. Harvest the crop with sickle or by hand. After harvesting, carry out threshing operation.


Average yield 25g/ha


Post-Harvesting:

In the wake of drying, complete appropriate cleaning of seeds. Expel little size seeds, harmed seeds and harvest stalks. Processing of pulses is of primary importance in improving their nutritive value. The handling strategies utilized are dousing, germination decortications, cooking and ageing.


Plant Protection:


Pest and their control:

White Fly:

For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm or Triazophos@300 ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.


Tobacco caterpillar:

If infestation is observed, take spray of Acephate 57SP@800 gm/acre or Chlorpyriphos 20EC@ 1.5 ltr/acre. If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.

Hairy Caterpillar:


To control bushy caterpillar pick caterpillar physically and decimated by smashing or placing in lamp fuel water when invasion is low. If there should be an occurrence of high invasion, take splash of Quinalphos@300 ml or Dichlorvos@200 ml/section of land.

Blister beetle:

They cause damage at flowering stage. They feed on flowers, buds thus prevent grain formation.

On the off chance that invasion is watched, take splash of Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200 ml or Acephate 75SC@800 gm/section of land. Do showering in night hours and if essential take second splash 10 days after first shower.


Disease and their control:


Yellow mosaic virus:

It is spread due to white fly. Irregular yellow, green patches are observed on leaves. Pods not developed on infected plants.

Control:

Grow yellow mosaic virus resistant varieties. For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm, Triazophos@ 400 ml/acre. If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.


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