• HariKishore Reddy

Sugarcane Cultivation| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Profits| BestPractiz-Agri

Updated: Jan 12

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is the fundamental source of sugar in India and holds a great name as a money crop. India is the world's biggest customer and the second biggest maker of sugar, beat distinctly by Brazil. About 2.8 lakh ranchers have been developing sugarcane in the immense zone of 4.4 lakh sections of land and more than 11 crore individuals are legitimately or in a roundabout way reliant on the sugar business in the nation.


It is one of the most important food-cum-cash crop grown in the country, providing employment to a larger number of people, in addition to earning considerable foreign exchange.


Nutritional and Health Benefits of Sugarcane:


A ton of the sugarcane developed in India is first used to make gur (jaggery) trailed by khandsari (foul or earthy colored sugar), and afterward sugar which is handled utilizing synthetic compounds and sulfur. The remaining sinewy mass can be utilized as fuel, or to make paper or sound protecting sheets and in certain nations its utilized even to make liquor.


Dietary benefit of Sugarcane:

The juice Sugarcane per serving (28.35 grams) contain Energy-111.13 kJ (26.56 kcal), Carbohydrates-27.51 g, Protein-0.27 g, Calcium11.23 mg (1%), Iron 0.37 mg (3%), Potassium41.96 mg (1%), Sodium17.01 mg (1%)


It's wealthy in cell reinforcements so it helps battles diseases and lift the invulnerability. It's wealthy in iron, magnesium, calcium and different electrolytes so it's extraordinary for drying out. It helps fix the regular cold and different contaminations and furthermore battle fever as it supports the body's protein levels.


Other than these, there are a couple of progressively incredible medical advantages of sugarcane juice that you should find out about:


1. One of the most significant medical advantages of sugarcane juices that it is a diuretic which implies that it helps treat urinary tract contamination, kidney stones and guarantee appropriate working of the kidneys.


2. As indicated by Ayurveda, sugarcane juice reinforces your liver and is along these lines proposed as a solution for jaundice. Jaundice is where you discover yellow pigmentation of the skin and layer because of raised degrees of a substance known as bilirubin in the organic liquids and is activated by helpless working liver. What sugarcane juice does is recharge your body with proteins lost and supplements that it needs to recuperate rapidly.


3. Another significant medical advantage of sugarcane juice is because of it being rich in the great sort of carbohydrates, protein, iron, potassium and other fundamental supplements that make it the perfect caffeinated drinks. Particularly in the mid year months, a glass of cold sugarcane juice is good for your wellbeing and your exhausting degrees of energy. It develops plasma and body liquids and helps counter dryness and exhaustion.


4. Ayurveda additionally proposes that 'sugarcane juice shows diuretic properties in this manner improving solid discharge and diminishing clogging'. Sugarcane juice additionally has basic properties which implies it's useful for rewarding sharpness and stomach consumes.


5. Sugarcane juice is extremely rich in minerals which helps prevent tooth decay and bad breath.


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What are the Optimum conditions required for Sugarcane?


Soil:

Sugarcane develops best on medium substantial soils, yet can also be raised on lighter soils and overwhelming muds, if there is satisfactory water system accessible in the previous kind of soils and waste is acceptable in the last sort of soils. In numerous spots, dim rich earth topsoils, 120-150cm profound, and lying on a past foundation of murum (distintegrated traprock) are utilized for this yield in certain regions.


Climate:

Sugarcane can develop over a drawn out season. Under warm damp conditions, it can proceed with its development, except if ended by blossoming. Temperatures above 50°C capture its development; those under 20°C back it off notably and serious ice demonstrates deadly. The yield does best in the tropical areas accepting a precipitation of 750-1200mm. For ageing, it needs a cool, dry season; yet where precipitation is excessively substantial and delayed, the nature of the juice will in general be low, and where the climate remains similarly.


Nursery and Planting Technology:


Season and Planting:

Sugarcane is developed predominantly in the primary season (December - May) in the whole State. In parts of Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Salem, Namakkal and Coimbatore locale, it is additionally raised during the exceptional season (June - September). The points of interest in regard of each season are given beneath:


1. Main season: i) Early : Dec - Jan

ii) Mid : Feb - March

iii) Late: April – May


2. Special season : June - July


Spacing:

Row spacing is ranges from 60-120 cm for sub-tropical regions. Sow the sugarcane at depth of 3-4 cm and cover it with soil.


Method of sowing:


A) For sowing use improved method of planting like deep furrow, trench method, paired row method or ring pit method.


1) Dry planting in ridges and furrow: With the help of tractor drawn ridger, make ridges and furrows at distance of 90 cm. Plant sugarcane setts then cover it with soil. After then give light irrigation.

2) Paired row planting: Make Trenches at 150 cm distance using trenches opener. Plant sugarcane in paired row using 30:30-90-30:30cm spacing. It gives higher yield as compared to ridges and furrow.


3) Ring Pit method: Circular pits of 60 cm diameters are dug at depth of 30 cm with a tractor mounted digger. 60 cm gap is provided between adjacent pits. 2-3 ratoons can be taken. 25-50% higher yield can be obtained compared to ridge and furrow.


B) Single grew set planting: Select solid setts for ranch. Make wrinkles at separation of 75-90 cm. Spot single grew setts. In the event that lone little size setts from top segment of stick are chosen, at that point they are planted at separation of 6"- 9". Spot eye of sett on upward course to guarantee appropriate and speedy germination. Spread setts with soil and apply light water system.


Seed Rate:


Different exploration and investigation shows that, germination level of 3 bud sets is higher than the setts having pretty much than three buds. Germination level of single bud sett is low a direct result of dampness misfortune from other cut end. Likewise if entire can follow is planted without giving any cut, still germination rate stay low as just top end will get develop.


Seed Treatment:


Take seed material from harvest of 6-7 months age. It ought to be liberated from bug and sickness. Dispose of irritation, sickness influenced and harmed buds and sticks. Collect seed crop one day before planting, it will give high and uniform germination. The setts ought to be absorbed Carbendazim@3gm in 1litre of water. After substance treatment treat with Azospirillum. For that plunge setts in Azospirillum inoculum@800gm/section of land +sufficient water answer for 15min before planting.


Soil Treatment:


Suspended 5 kg of bio manure per section of land in 10 liters of water and blended in with altogether with 80-100 kg of FYM. The blended bio compost in FYM is sprinkled over stick setts in the columns of planting. Quickly columns ought to be secured.


Mulching:


Mulch the edges consistently with stick garbage to a thickness of 10 cm inside seven days in the wake of planting. It assists with holding over dry season, moderates dampness, decrease weed populace and limit shoot borer frequency. Mulch the field with waste following 21 days of planting in overwhelming soil and wetland conditions. Maintain a strategic distance from junk mulching in regions where frequency of termites is taken note..


Weed control and Earthing Up:


The first hoeing a weeding ought to be given to the harvest three to about a month subsequent to planting. After germination, contingent upon the field conditions and the recurrence of water system, a few more hoeings and weedings might be required during the initial three months in the wake of planting with the coming up of the harvest. The last earthing-up ought to be finished before the storm rains, and ought to by and large synchronize with the utilization of the last portion of manure. This assists with holding down the weeds.


Inter-cropping:


In territories of satisfactory water system, sow one line of soybean or blackgram or greengram along the focal point of the edge on the third day of planting. Intercropping of daincha or sunhemp along edges and fuse of the equivalent on the 45th day during incomplete earthing up assists with expanding the dirt ripeness, and furthermore the stick yield. Particularly Intercropping of Co.1 Soybean gives a yield of 800 kg/ha with no unfavorable impact on stick yield.


Fertilizers:


a. Soil Application:


Apply 275 kg of nitrogen and 112.5 kg of K2O/ha in three equivalent parts at 30, 60 and 90 days in seaside and stream flooded belts (guaranteed water gracefully regions). On account of lift water system belt, apply 225 kg of nitrogen and 112.5 kg of K2O/ha in three equivalent parts at 30, 60 and 90 days (water shortage zones). For jaggery zones, apply 175 kg of nitrogen and 112.5 kg of K2O/ha in three equivalent parts on 30, 60 and 90 days.


Nitrogen Saving


a. Neem Cake Blended Urea:

Apply 67.5 kg of N/ha + 27.5 kg of Neem Cake at 30 days and repeat on 60th and 90th days.

Note:

Neem cake blending: Powder the required quantity of neem cake and mix it with urea thoroughly and keep it for 24 hours. Thus, 75 kg of nitrogen/ha can be saved by this method.


b. Azospirillum:


Blend 12 bundles (2400 g)/ha of Azospirillum inoculant or TNAU Biofert – 1 with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg soil and apply close to the clusters on 30th day of planting. Rehash the equivalent on 60th day with another 12 bundles (2400 gm). Rehash the above on the opposite side of the yield line on the 90th day (for lift flooded belt).


c. Band placement:


Open deep furrows of 15 cm depth with hand hoes and place the fertilisers in the form of band and cover it properly.


d. Subsurface application:


Application of 255 kg of Nitrogen in the form of urea along with potash at 15 cm depth by the side of the cane clump will result in the saving of 20 kg N/ha without any yield reduction.


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Plant Protection:


Pest and their control:


Early shoot borer:

Assaulted in germination stage upto internodes developments. Hatchling make gaps in shoot underneath the ground level and afterward go into it hence causes dead heart. It give hostile smell. It is for the most part seen in light soil and in dry climate. Nuisance is dynamic from March - June.


Control:

Avoid late plantation. Apply Chlorpyriphos@1litres/acre with 100-150 litres of water over the setts placed on furrows with the help of rosecan. Remove dead heart infected plants. Give light irrigation and avoid drying of field.


White Grub:

These feed on root framework and accordingly harm to trim. Whole evaporating of stalks and effectively dislodging of stick are primary indications for white grub invasion. In starting stage invasion saw in patches and subsequently it spread on whole field.

Control

The grown-up creepy crawlies rise up out of the dirt during June-July with the primary showers of downpour. They assemble on the close by trees and feed on their leaves during night. The eggs are laid in the dirt and the hatchlings (grubs) bring forth from them consume the rootlets or root hairs of the groundnut plants. To decimate creepy crawlies shower Imidacloprid@4-6ml/10Ltr of water on plants of close by sugarcane plants.


For viable administration of white grub. Furrow the field and uncovered the bugs resting in the dirt. Try not to defer crop planting. Before planting treat stick with Chlorpyriphos. Apply Phorate@4kg or carbofuran@13kg per section of land in the dirt at or before planting. In vigorously swarmed fields, flooding is to be accomplished for 48 hrs. Do soaking of Clothianidin@40gm/section of land with 400 Ltr of water utilizing stick.


Termites:

Before planting do stick treatment. Plunge setts in imidacloprid solution@4ml/10Ltr for 2min or at time planting shower Chlorpyriphos@2litre/section of land on setts. In the event that invasion happen in standing yield, soak with Imidacloprid@60ml/150litre of water or Chlorpyriphos@1ltr/200Ltr of water.

Pyrilla:

Severe pest of North India. Adult suck leaf sap under the surface of leaves. It results in yellowing white spot and withering. They secretes honey like substance and attract sooty mould fungi, due to this leaves become blackish.

Control

At regular interval, collect and destroy white-puffy egg masses. In severe infestation spray with Dimethoate or Acephate@ 1-1.5ml/Ltr of water.


Root borer:

Borer enter into root zone of shoot below ground. Infestation is high from July onward. Due to infestation yellowing of leaves from leaf apex to downwards along the margin is seen.

Control

Before planting do stick treatment with Chlorpyriphos. In dry field invasion is low so keep field dry and clean, stay away from water logging condition in field. Complete earthing activity at 90days. On the off chance that pervasion is seen in field, do soaking with Chlorpyriphos 20EC@1Ltr/section of land with 100-150Ltr of water close to the root zone or do granular use of Quinalphos@300ml/section of land. Evacuate contaminated stick and pulverized it away from field.


Stalk Borer:

It is active from July onwards with onset of monsoon. Larvae feeds on inner surface of leaf sheath, mid rib and stalk. It can attack any region of stalk. Infestation continues from cane formation to harvest.

Control

Maintain a strategic distance from overabundance utilization of nitrogen, keep field clean and give appropriate waste. Give earthing up to keep crop from housing. Synthetic control is seldom powerful. Discharge parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes@800 mated females/section of land at week after week stretch from July to November.


Top Borer:


It assaults crops from tillering to development stage. Hatchlings makes burrows into midribs causes white streak which later turns earthy colored. In the event that pervasion happens during tillering stage, the assaulted shoots kicks the bucket bringing about dead heart development. In the event that it assaults on grown up sticks, apical development is captured bringing about bunchy top side effects.

Control

To control do drenching of Rynaxypyr 20SC@60ml/acre in 100-150Ltr of water in between period of month end of April to first week of May. Maintain proper drainage in soil, as water logging increases top borer incidence.


Disease and their control:

Red Rot:

From top, third and fourth leaves show yellowing and drying. At later stage show discoloured lesion on rind. If split the diseased stalk show reddening of internal tissue. A sour and alcoholic smell emanates from the infected cane.

Control:

To control develop infection opposition assortments. Select sickness free stick for planting. Dispose of stick which show blushing at cut end and at the nodal locale. Do crop rotation with paddy or with green manure crops. Evade water logging field. In the event that pervasion is watched evacuate the yield and annihilated it away from field. Purify soil around the sick bunch with Carbendazim@0.1% arrangement.


Wilt:

Root borer, nematodes, termite, dry season and water logging condition cause plant to wither contamination. Crown leaves turn yellow and free turgor and shrinks. Vessel shape depressions shows up in substance area and yield get recoil. It lessens germination and decreases yield.

Control: Use disease free setts for planting. Do setts treatments with Carbendazim@0.2% + Boric acid@0.2% for 10min. Intercropping with onion, garlic.











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