Tomato Cultivation| Health Benefits| Pest & Disease Control| Annual Profits| BestPractiz-Agri
Updated: Jan 12
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a yearly or brief lasting pubescent herb and grayish green twisted lopsided pinnate leaves. The blossoms are grayish bearing Fruits which are red or yellow in shading. It is a self pollinated crop. Tomato is begun in Peru of South America. It is significant business vegetable yield of India. It is the second most significant harvest of world after potato. Natural products are eaten crude or in cooked structure.
Nutritional and Health Benefits of Tomatoes:
Tomatoes are a great source of potassium and vitamin C. Several beneficial forms of vitamin A are also present in tomatoes including lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene.
Health Benefits :-
Tomatoes offer several health benefits related to their phytonutrients. Here are a few reasons to enjoy this popular veggie both cooked and raw. .
1.May Reduce Risk of Prostate Cancer
Lycopene is an antioxidant in tomatoes that have been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene acts on various biochemical pathways that help prevent cancer cells from developing and spreading.
2.Supports Heart Health
The lycopene in tomatoes works synergistically with other cell reinforcement nutrients (like nutrients An, E, and C) to give intensifying advantages to heart wellbeing. A few investigations exhibit a connection between the lycopene in tomatoes and a decrease in oxidized LDL and blood vessel plaque.Tomatoes additionally contain potassium, which is notable to diminish circulatory strain.
Tomatoes are a superb wellspring of vitamin A, and all the more explicitly, the types of vitamin A related with eye wellbeing. Lutein and zeaxanthin are two types of nutrient A that are known to amass in the retina and forestall age-related macular degeneration. Devouring tomatoes as a piece of dishes that incorporate some fat, (for example, in a plate of mixed greens with olive oil) improves assimilation of the fat-dissolvable nutrients which are significant for acceptable visual perception.
4.Protects Against Sun Damage
The phytonutrients in tomatoes are defensive against a portion of the impacts of UV harm. Despite the fact that tomatoes alone aren't sufficient to forestall skin malignant growth, remembering tomatoes for your supper plan may improve your body's strength to the risks of particular kinds of sun beams.
5.May Reduce Risk of Diabetes Complications
Tomatoes have been related with antihyperglycemic impacts in rodents, yet not in people. In any case, tomatoes are as yet advantageous for individuals with diabetes. Tomatoes have been shown to reduce the oxidative stress that's caused by diabetes.They also reduce inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, and tissue damage, all common complications of the disease.
Note: Adverse Effects -Tomatoes are naturally acidic. If you suffer from acid reflux or heartburn, you may want to limit your intake of tomatoes and tomato products.
What are the Optimum conditions required for Tomato Plant?
Tomato is a warm season crop. The best fruit colour and quality is obtained at a temperature range of 21-24°C. Temperatures above 32°C adversely affects the fruit set and development. The plants cannot withstand frost and high humidity. It requires a low to medium rainfall. Bright sunshine at the time of fruit set helps to develop dark red coloured fruits. Temperature below 10°C adversely affects plant tissues thereby slowing down physiological activities.
Tomato can be grown on a wide range of soils from sandy to heavy clay. However, well-drained, sandy or red loam soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6.0-7.0 are considered as ideal.
PKM 1:It is an induced mutant from Annanji. Fruits are flat round with prominent green shoulder and suitable for long distance transport. Yield is 30-35 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 135 days.
CO.1 (1969): Reselection from Kalyanpur selection. semi determinate variety, fruits are round without any grooves and crimson red in colour. Yield is 25 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 135 days
CO.2 (1974): Selection from Russian introduction. Indeterminate variety with an average fruit weight of 50-60g.eruits are flat with 4-5 furrows. Yield is 28-30 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 145 days.
CO.3 (1980): Induced mutant from CO1;a determinate variety suitable for close planting (30x30cm).i t is a cluster bearing type yielding 40t/ha ia a duration of 100-105 days
Paiyur-1: It is a variety evolved by crossing PusaRuby and CO3.Suitable for rainfed cultivation. It yields about 30tonnes/ha.
COTH.1 ,COTH 2 and TNAU Tomato Hybrid CO 3
COTH.1 (1998):It is a hybrid between IIHR 709 x LE.812. Yields about 95.9 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 115 days. Fruits are acidic (0.61%)
COTH.2 (2006): It is a cross breed between LCR 2 and CLN 2123A. It has protection from leaf twist infection ailment and without pesticide splash it recorded a yield of 90.2 t/ha under ordinary conditions. Fruits are smooth round to marginally elongated, medium measured; unripe natural products whitish green, ready Fruits splendid red shaded and borne in bunches of 3-5.
TNAU Tomato Hybrid CO 3: It is a half breed between HN 2 x CLN 2123A. Yields about 96.2 tons/ha in a harvest term of 140-145 days. Plants are semi determinate (90-95 cm) and appropriate for high thickness planting .Fruits are smooth round, medium estimated, and borne in bunches of 3-5.High yielding and impervious to leaf twist infection ailment and modestly impervious to root tie nematode.
Nursery and Planting Technology:-
Nursery Bed Preparation :
Tomato seeds are planted on nursery beds to bring seedlings for transplanting up in the field. Raised beds of size 3 x 0.6 m and 10-15 cm in stature are readied. Around 70 cm separation is kept between two beds to do tasks of watering, weeding, and so on. The outside of beds ought to be smooth and all around leveled. Include sieved FYM and fine sand on the seedbed. Raised beds are important to maintain a strategic distance from issue of water signing in substantial soils. In sandy soils, be that as it may, planting can be taken up in level beds. To maintain a strategic distance from mortality of seedlings due to damping off, soak the seed bed first with water and afterward with Bavistin (15-20 g/10 liters of water).
Season of Planting :
Seeds are sown in June-July for autumn winter crop and for spring summer crop seeds are sown in November. In the hills seed is sown in March April.
Raising of Seedlings :
Around 250-300 g of seed are adequate for raising seedlings for one hectare of land. Before planting seeds are treated with parasitic culture of Trichoderma viride (4 g/kg of seed) or Thiram (2g/kg of seed) to evade harm from damping-off sickness. Planting ought to be done daintily in lines separated at 10-15 cm separation. Seeds are planted at a profundity of 2-3 cm and secured with a fine layer of soil followed by light watering by water can. The beds should then be secured with dry straw or grass or sugarcane leaves to keep up required temperature and dampness. The watering ought to be finished by water can according to the need till germination is finished. The front of dry straw or grass is evacuated following germination is finished. During the most recent week in nursery, the seedlings might be solidified by marginally retaining water.
The seedlings with 5-6 true leaves are ready for transplanting within 4 of sowing.
The field is furrowed to fine tilth by offering four to five furrowing with an adequate span between two furrowing. Planking ought to be accomplished for legitimate leveling. Forrows are then opened at the suggested dividing. All around disintegrated FYM (25 t/ha) is completely fused at the hour of land planning.
Spacing depends upon the type of variety grown and the season of planting. Normally the seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 75-90 x 45-60 cm.
Method of Planting:
Seedlings are transplanted in forrows in light soils and on side of the edges if there should arise an occurrence of substantial soils. A pre-drenching water system is allowed 3-4 days before transplanting. Before planting seedlings ought to be dunked in an answer arranged by Nuvacron (15ml) and Dithane M - 45 (25g) in 10 liters of water for 5-6 minutes. Transplanting ought to ideally be done at night.
Weed Control :
The field ought to be kept sans weed, particularly in the underlying phase of plant development, as weeds contend with the harvest and lessen the yield radically. Visit shallow development ought to be done at standard stretch to keep the field liberated from weeds and to encourage soil air circulation and legitimate root improvement. Profound development is harmful on account of the harm of roots and introduction of sodden soil to the surface. Two-three hoeing and the earthing up are required to keep the harvest liberated from weeds. Pre-rise utilization of Basalin (1kg a.i./ha) or Pendimethalin (1kg a.i./ha), combined with one hand weeding 45 days subsequent to transplanting is successful for control of weeds. Plastic mulching (dark or straightforward) can be utilized to control the weeds. Weeds can be controlled effectively by mulching in addition to utilization of herbicides, for example, Pendimethalin (0.75 kg a.i./ha) or Oxyfluorfen (0.12 kg a.i./ha).
Crop Rotation :
Tomato ought not be developed progressively on a similar field and a break of at any rate one year is required between planting of tomatoes or different Solanacesous crops (eg. Chillies, Brinjals, Capsicum, Potato, Tobacco, and so on.), cucurbits and numerous different vegetables. The harvests, which can be developed after tomatoes, are as per the following Cereals (eg. Rice, Corn Sorghum, Wheat, Millets, and so forth.) or Cruciferons crops (eg. Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi and so forth) or Radish, Watermelon, Onion, Garlic, Groundnut, Cotton, Safflower , Sunflower, Sesame, Sugar beet and Marigold. Intercropping
Tomato is well fitted in various trimming frameworks of oats, grains, pulses and oilseeds. Trimming frameworks rice-tomato, rice-maize, okra-potato-tomato, tomato-onion are well known in different pieces of India. Spinach or radish can likewise be developed as between crop in tomato effectively.
Because of the tall propensity and hurling bearing nature of the half and halves marking is basic. Marking encourages intercultural tasks and aides in keeping up the nature of the Fruits. It is done 2-3 weeks in the wake of transplanting. Marking should be possible either by wooden stakes or laying overhead wires to which individual plant is tied. In the event of vague kinds, tow or three wires are extended corresponding to one another along the line and plants are attached to these wires.
Tomato is extremely touchy to water application. Overwhelming water system gave after a long spell of dry spell causes splitting of the natural products. Henceforth it ought to be kept away from. Light water system ought to be allowed 3-4 days subsequent to transplanting. Water system spans ought to be as indicated by soil type and precipitation, water system ought to be allowed 7-8 days stretch during kharif, during rabi 10-12 days and 5-6 days during summer.
Flowering and fruit development are the critical stages of tomato therefore; water stress should not be given during this period.
Manuring & Fertilization
The compost portion relies on the fruitfulness of soil and measure of natural fertilizer applied to the yield. For a decent yield, 15-20 tons of all around deteriorated FYM is fused into the dirt. By and large, utilization of 120 kg N, 80 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O per hectare is suggested for getting ideal yield. Half portion of N and full portion of P and K is given at the hour of planting. The equalization half of N is given as top dressing 30 days in the wake of transplanting.
For half and half assortments, the suggested portion per hectare is 180 kg N, 100 kg P2 O5 and 60 kg K2 O. 60 kg N and half of P and K are given at the hour of transplanting. Remaining amounts of P and K and 60 kg N is top dressed 30 in the wake of transplanting. A third portion of 60 kg N is applied 50 days in the wake of transplanting.
Contingent upon the assortment, Fruits become prepared for first picking in around 60-70 days subsequent to transplanting. The phase of gathering relies on the reason to which the Fruits are to be utilized. The various phases of collecting are as per the following-
1. Dull green shading - Dark green shading is changed and a ruddy pink shade is seen on Fruit. Natural products to be transported are reaped at this stage. Such natural products are then splashed with ethylene 48 hours before delivery. Juvenile green tomatoes will mature inadequately and be of low quality. A basic method to decide development is to cut the tomato with a sharp blade. On the off chance that seeds are cut, the Fruit is excessively youthful for reap and won't mature appropriately.
2. Breaker stage - Dim pink shading saw on ¼ part of the natural product. Natural products are collected at this phase to guarantee the best quality. Such Fruits are less inclined to harm during shipment frequently bring a more significant expense than less develop tomatoes.
3. Pink stage - Pink shading saw on ¾ part of the fruits.
4. Rosy pink-Fruits are hardened and about entire natural product turns ruddy pink. Natural products for nearby deal are collected at this stage.
5. Completely riped - Fruits are completely riped and delicate having dim red shading. Such natural products are utilized for handling.
Fruits are ordinarily reaped promptly in the first part of the day or night. The Fruits are reaped by winding movement of hand to isolate natural products from the stem. Reaped fruits ought to be kept uniquely in bin or containers and keep it in conceal. Since all the natural products don't develop simultaneously, they are collected at a time frame days. By and large there will be 7-11 harvests in a yield life length.
The yield per hectare varies greatly according to variety and season. On an average, the yield varies from 20-25 t/ha. Hybrid varieties may yield upto 50-60 t/ha.
After reaping, reviewing is finished. At that point fruits are pressed in bamboo containers or cases or wooden boxes. To expand self-existence of tomato during significant distance transport pre-cooling is completed. From age tomatoes a few items like Puree, syrup, juice and ketch up are made subsequent to handling.
Pest and their control:
Maggots of leaf miner feed on leaf and make serpentine mines into leaf. It affects the photosynthesis and fruit formation.
The nymphs and adults of white fly suck the cell sap from the leaves and weaken the plants. They secrete honey dew on which black sooty mould develops on leaves. They also transmit leaf curl diseases.
Subsequent to planting of seeds in nursery, spread bed with 400mesh nylon net or slender white material. It assists with shielding seedlings from bug sickness assault. To check invasion utilize yellow clingy traps covered with oil and clingy oils. To control spread of whiteflies, remove and decimate influenced plants. In the event of serious invasion, take splash of Acetamiprid 20SP@80gm/200Ltr of water or Triazophos@250ml/200litre or Profenophos@200ml/200litre of water. Rehash the shower following 15 days.
Commonly observed pest. Mostly observed in dry weather. They suck sap from the foliage and results in curling of leaves, leaves become cup shaped or curved upward. Also causes flower drop.
To check seriousness of thrips frequency, keep blue clingy traps @6-8 for every section of land. Additionally to diminish the occurrence of this sickness, splash Verticillium lecani@5gm/Ltr water. In the event that frequency of thrips is increasingly, at that point take shower of Imidacloprid 17.8SL @60ml or Fipronil@200ml/200Ltr of water or Acephate 75% WP@600 gm/200Ltr or Spinosad@80ml/section of land in 200Ltr water.
Gram Pod borer or Heliothis armigera:
It is a major pest of tomato. Crop loss due to Helicoverpa is about 22-37% if not controlled at proper stage. It feeds on leaves also on flower and fruits. On fruits they make circular holes and feed on flesh.
If there should be an occurrence of beginning pervasion, handpicked grown up hatchlings. At beginning phase use HNPV or Neem extract@50gm/Liter of water. To control fruit borer, put 16 pheromone traps/section of land at equivalent separation following 20 days of transplanting. Change bait in at regular intervals stretch. Wreck plagued parts. In the event that bug populace is high, splash Spinosad@80ml+sticker@400ml/200Ltr of water. To control shoot and fruit borer, splash Rynaxypyr(Coragen)@60ml/200Ltr water.
Parasite is a genuine bug and it might cause yield misfortune up to 80%. These are generally circulated bug watched all through the world. It assaults on a few yields like potato, stew, beans, cotton, tobacco, curcurbit, castor, jute, espresso, lemon, citrus, blackgram, cowpea, pepper, tomato, yam, mango, papaya, brinjal, guava. Fairies and grown-ups feed solely on the lower surface of the leaves. Tainted leaves give cup shape appearance. Overwhelming pervasion brings about defoliation bud shedding and drying of leaves.
If Infestation of yellow mite & thrips is observed in field, spray of Chlorfenapyr@15ml/10Ltr, Abamectin@15ml/10Ltr or Fenazaquin @100ml/100Ltr are found effective. For effective control spray Spiromesifen 22.9SC(Oberon)@200ml/acre/180Ltr of water.
Disease and their control:
Major disease of tomato and observed due to changing weather. Water soaked lesions are appeared on fruits. Afterwards they turn into black or brown color and causing rotting of fruits.
Before planting, do seed treatment with Tricoderma@5-10gm or Carbendazim@2gm or Thiram@3 gm/Kg of seeds. In the event that contamination saw in field gather and crush tainted products of the soil which lies on ground. Natural product decay and anthracnose assaulted generally saw in overcast climate, to control take splash of Mancozeb@400gm or Copper Oxychloride@300gm or Chlorothalonil@250gm/200Ltr water. Rehash shower with 15 days span.
Warm temperatures, high dampness are perfect condition for spread of this illness. It is portrayed by dark spots that are shaped on tainted parts. Spots are normally round, water-splashed and indented with dark edges. The fruits with numerous spots drop off rashly bringing about overwhelming loss of yield.
If Infestation of Anthracnose is observed. To control this disease, spraying of Propiconazole or Hexaconazole@200ml/200Ltr of water should be done.
Common and significant malady of tomato. At first little, earthy colored confined spots are seen on leaf. Later spots are seen on stem and furthermore on natural products. Completely created spots become unpredictable, dull earthy colored shading with concentric ring inside spots. Beaten up pretty bad, defoliation happened.
On the off chance that invasion of early curse is watched, take splash of Mancozeb@400gm or Tabuconazol@200ml/200Ltr. Rehash shower 10-15 days after first splash. In overcast climate, odds of frequency of right on time and late scourge increments. As a preventive measure, splash with Chlorothalonil@250gm/100Ltr of water. Likewise unexpected downpour design bother curse and different sicknesses take splash of Copper based fungicides@300gm/Ltr+Streptocycline@6gm/200Ltr water to control scourge illness.
Wilt and Damping off:
Moist and poorly drain soil causes damping off disease. It is soil borne disease. Water soaking and shriveling of stem occurs. Seedlings killed before emergence. If it appears in nursery the entire lot of seedling may get destroyed.
To forestall root decay, soak soil with 1% Urea@100gm/10Ltr and Copper oxychloride @250gm/200Ltr water. To control shrink, soak close by soil with Copper oxychloride@250gm or Carbendazim@400gm/200Ltr of water. Expanded temperature and stickiness because of watering encourage parasitic development at roots, to defeat it, apply Trichoderma 2 kg/section of land alongside bovine manure close to underlying foundations of plants. To control soil conceived sickness, douse soil with Carbendazim@1gm/Ltr or Bordo mix@10gm/ltr, multi month after that apply 2 kg Trichoderma/section of land, blended in with 100kg dairy animals waste.
Maintain a strategic distance from water dwelling in field. Keep field clean. To control this sickness, showering with Hexaconazole alongside sticker @1ml/Ltr of water ought to be finished. If there should arise an occurrence of unexpected downpour, odds of fine mold is more. Gentle pervasion takes splash of water dissolvable sulphur@ 20gm/10Ltr of water 2-3 times with time frame days.